Albert Einstein was a theoretical physicist. He is considered one of the world’s most important scientists and the greatest scientists of the 20th century. He was born on March 14, 1879, in the German city of Ulm, and died on April 18, 1955, in Princeton, USA. He defined a special and general theory of relativity, and also helped in the development of quantum physics. In 1921, he received the Nobel Prize for formulating and explaining the photoelectric effect.
This is the life story of Albert Einstein – a biography of one of the most famous scientist!
He comes from a Jewish family, and his parents were Hermann Einstein, the owner of a company that produced electrical materials and equipment, and Paulina (Koch’s girlfriend). He also had a sister four years younger named Maja.
After Albert’s birth, his father and mother thought that he would not be like other children because his head was too big in relation to his body, but in time they realized that this would not be a problem for him.
Einstein spoke when he was three years old, and by the age of nine he avoided topics that did not interest him. That is why his parents took him to the doctor, and the housekeeper thought that he was retarded. He was not sociable, but devised creative ways to play.
When he was five, his father showed him a compass and that had a big impact on his discoveries. Then he realized that there is an invisible force in space that acts on the compass needle.
They had a large library in the family house, so Einstein became acquainted with literature, art and science from an early age. He inherited his talent for music from his mother.
Albert moved with his family to Munich, and on October 1, 1885, he attended a Catholic elementary school. He did not learn many lessons because they were boring and this way of schooling did not allow him to show creativity.
From 1889, he was visited by the medical student Max Talmud, who tried to bring him closer to some of the most important scientific and philosophical texts. Uncle Jakob, an engineer by profession, procured books for him that interested him and in that way stimulated his curiosity.
He continued his education at the “Luitpold” high school, which was also located in Munich. He often argued with professors because he thought that memorizing the material was useless. In 1891, he began to study mathematics from the works of the ancient mathematician Euclid.
After his father and uncle moved the company to the Italian city of Pavia, in 1895 Albert left the high school he did not like and went to live with his family. He did that a year and a half before the final exams and obtaining a certificate. In that way, he avoided military service, which was obligatory in Germany.
As he failed to enroll at the Federal Polytechnic Institute in Zurich, his parents sent him to the Swiss city of Aarau to finish high school. During that period, he fell in love with Sofia Maria – Jana Amanda Winteler, the daughter of Professor Winteler when he lived.
In 1986, he finished high school and became a student at the Federal Polytechnic Institute in Zurich. He had to separate from his first love because she went to work in the Swiss city of Olsberg.
At the end of the year, a four-year-old Serbian woman, Mileva Maric, transferred to this institute, with whom Albert started a relationship. His mother was bothered by the difference in age, the fact that Mileva is of the Orthodox faith and that one leg is shorter than the other.
Einstein’s father went bankrupt at that time, so he was forced to find a job and earn a living. He taught in high school and taught private lessons.
In 1900, he graduated from the Federal Polytechnic Institute. During that period, he exchanged scientific ideas with Mileva and his friend Michel Beso, who was an engineer.
In 1902, Albert and Mileva had an illegitimate daughter, Elizabeth – Lizerl, who was born in Serbia. Some say that she died immediately, and others that she was given for adoption. In 1903, after the death of Einstein’s father, the couple married.
On May 14, 1904, they became the parents of a boy named Hans Albert. He became a professor of hydraulic engineering at the University of California, Berkeley.
In 1905, Albert received his doctorate from the University of Zurich. His mentor was Alfred Kleiner, and the title of his doctoral thesis was “A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions”.
On July 28, 1910, their second son, Edward, was born. He wanted to become a psychoanalyst, but he did not succeed because he suffered from schizophrenia. In 1965, he died in a psychiatric hospital.
Picture: Mileva Maric and Albert Einstein
When he became famous, the relationship between Mileva and Albert cooled down and his mother put even stronger pressure on the scientist to leave his wife. He started treating her like a maid and wrote her the rules he wanted to follow.
“You will take care of:
• that my clothes and laundry are kept in order;
• to get three regular meals in my room;
• that my bedroom and study are tidy and especially that my desk is used only for my needs.
You will renounce all personal ties with me, unless they are necessary for social reasons. In particular, you will give up:
• my sitting at home with you;
• my going out and traveling with you.
You will follow the following rules regarding me:
• you will not expect any intimacy from me, nor will you object to me;
• you will stop talking to me if I ask you to;
“You will leave my bedroom and study if I demand it right away and without protest.”
On February 14, 1919, they divorced. They agreed that Albert would give her money if she won the Nobel Prize.
On June 2, he married three – year – old Elsa Lovental, who was his aunt’s sister. She had three daughters from her first marriage.
Elsa died in December 1936. His sister Maya, who had lived in Italy until then, soon moved in with Einstein.
In addition to science, Albert was also involved in music. He played the violin and performed compositions by Mozart, Beethoven and Haydn with four other musicians.
On April 13, 1955,, Einstein’s health suddenly deteriorated and he was hospitalized. He died on April 18 at one o’clock after midnight in Princeton Hospital. It is not know what his last words are, because he muttered something in German that the nurse did not understand. He was cremated the same day, and his ashes were spilled in the open. He left most of the legacy to Elsa’s daughter, whom he adopted, and to his secretary Betty Neumann, whom some writers of the scientist’s biography say was his mistress.
Despite Einstein’s opposition, his brain was removed and is still being examined, and his eyes are kept in a safe in New York. Scientists have discovered that the structure of his brain is more complex than in ordinary people. It is estimated that his IQ was between 205 and 225.
In 1894, Einstein wrote his first scientific paper, “Investigation of the state of the ether in a magnetic field.”
In 1895, he undertook the “Einstein’s Mirror” experiment, on the basis of which he concluded that the speed of light does not depend on the speed of its source, which will become one of the foundations of the special theory of relativity.
In 1900, he published a paper on capillary forces, “Results of Observation of Capillary Phenomena”, in which he tried to unify the laws of physics.
In 1901, he received Swiss citizenship.
In 1902, he was employed as an assistant technical examiner at the Swiss Patent Office. He didn’t have many obligations, so he researched in his free time. He used only a pen and paper for that.
In 1905, he published a series of scientific papers, “Annals of Physics”, which are the basis of modern physics and are know as “Annus Mirabilis” (“Year of Miracles”).
In his first scientific paper “On a heuristic view of production into the transformation of light”, he proposed a new law whose formula is: Emax = hv – P. With his help, he proved that light can be considered a particle and a wave at the same time. It also came to the approximate value of Avogadro’s number.
In the article “On motion – required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat – Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid”, he wrote about Brown’s motion and proved that an atom and a molecule exist. He used statistical analyzes in it.
The third paper “On the electrodynamics of moving bodies” is an introduction to the theory of relativity. He explained that space and time are not absolute. There is evidence that the credit for its creation belongs not only to Albert, but also to Mileva.
In the fourth article “Does the inertia of a body depend on its energy content” he came up with one of the most famous formulas in history: E = mc2. She later helped scientists make the first atomic bomb.
In 1906, Albert was promoted on the job and became a second-class technical examiner. In 1908, he received permission to work as an unpaid teacher at the university. Then he wrote a scientific paper on light scattering in which he explained why the sky is blue.
In 1909, he published a paper entitled “The Development of Our Views on the Composition and Essence of Radiation.” In it he showed that energy quanta behave like independent point particles. Thanks to this work, a modern photon concept was introduced.
In 1911, he was employed as an associate professor at the University of Zurich. He soon moved to Prague where he began working as a full professor at Charles University. He published the paper “On the influence of gravity on the propagation of light”. He tried to explain the problems of the General Theory of Relativity to his colleagues, but most of them did not understand it.
In 1912, Einstein returned to Zurich and became a full professor at the Federal Polytechnic Institute. He collaborated with the mathematician Marcel Grossman. At that time, he considered time to be the fourth dimension.
In 1914, he moved to Berlin where he began working as a professor at a local university. He became a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences and took Prussian citizenship. Until 1933, he was the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physics in Berlin.
In 1915, he presented a new theory of gravitation to the Prussian Academy of Sciences, which he called the General Theory of Relativity.
His field equation replaced Newton’s law of gravitation. Many disputed it, and in 1919, The Times published evidence that Einstein was right, and he soon achieved world fame. This was followed by participation in university conferences in Europe, America, Japan, etc. He traveled all over the world, and most of all he liked to travel by boat.
In 1917, Albert published an article “On Quantum Mechanics of Radiation” and a paper in which he used the General Theory of Relativity and laid the foundations of modern physical cosmology.
From 1920 to 1946, he was an associate professor at Leiden University.
In 1921, Einstein went to New York where he lectured on the theory of relativity. He was soon awarded the Nobel Prize, but not because of this theory, but because of his work on the photoelectric effect, which was the least disputed.
During this period, he expressed disagreement with the new theory of Quantum Mechanics, which is why many considered him a determinism. He had the biggest conflict with the Danish physicist Nils Bohr.
In 1924, he published an article by the young Indian physicist Satyandra Nat Boze in which he described light as a photon gas. This is how the Bose-Einstein statistic was created, which describes particles called bosons.
He also helped the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger develop the quantum Boltzmann distribution. He did not consider this work particularly important, so they did not want it to be included in its title.
In 1926, together with his former student Leo Sillard, he patented a refrigerator.
In early 1933, he lectured at Princeton University. After Hitler came to power, hatred towards Albert and other Jewish scholars grew. He was deprived of the property and functions he had at the university. A commission of a hundred scientists was set up in the German capital, and its purpose was to challenge Einstein’s theories. Because of all that, he stayed in the USA and got a job as a professor at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton.
In 1934, he became a member of the Rationalist Newspaper Association.
In 1935, he conceived the “EPR” experiment with scientists Boris Podolski and Nathan Rosen. In it they argued that quantum mechanics is not a complete physical theory.
In 1939, he wrote a letter to the American president in which he expressed fear that the German government would be the first to produce nuclear weapons. Albert advocated the study of nuclear fission for military purposes. He later repented of this and wrote to President Roosevelt again in order to avoid dropping a bomb on Japan. He had a hard time with the news of this tragedy and until the last day of his life he opposed nuclear weapons.
In 1940, Einstein became a citizen of the United States.
He retired in 1944, but continued to live as before. He went to his office every day and did scientific work.
The Albert Einstein Foundation for Higher Studies was formed in 1946, but in 1947 he withdrew support and forbade them to use his name and surname.
In 1950, he wrote the paper “Unified Field Theory”, which was published in the scientific journal “Scientific American”. It was then that his aspiration to unite all the laws of physics into one Great Unifying Theory came to the fore.
In 1952, Einstein was offered to become the president of Israel, but he refused.
In 1955,, he tried to unify field theory, but he did not succeed.
Einstein called himself a pacifist and humanist, and later a democratic socialist. He respected human rights and was one of the presidents of the American Crusade to stop lynching. He considered racism to be America’s greatest disease.
He was also one of the founders of the German Democratic Party. He admired the Indian revolutionary Mahatma Gandhi.
From 1937 to 1954, he had ties to a large number of communist movements, which is why the FBI opposed moving to the United States. They spied on him for 22 years looking for evidence that he was a Soviet spy.
He supported Zionism, the movement of Jews to return to Israel, but he feared that Judaism would continue to collapse because of that. He often criticized Menachem Begin, the leader of the Zionist military organization Irgun.
His character appears in many movies, plays, operas, etc. His hairstyle and character are still an inspiration to cartoonists today. In 1951, a photograph was taken in which he crawled out and became an icon of pop culture.
It has been speculated that Einstein had autism, Asperger’s syndrome, suffered from dyslexia, and the like. These claims are as incorrect as the one that his math did badly. He had the best grade in this subject.
Einstein made great discoveries thanks to the thought experiments he conducted in his head. It was easier for him to think in pictures than in words.
He could not perform simple actions such as tying shoelaces, remembering numbers, dates, etc. He did not have a car and never learned to drive. He could not swim, but he loved sailing. Due to laziness, he did not comb his hair and did not wear socks. He was a passionate smoker. His favorite scientist was Galileo Galilee. He loved watching Charlie Chaplin movies, to whom he said: “You are popular because the whole world understands you. And I’m famous because no one understands what I’m saying. ”
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