Wyatt Earp – legendary sheriff and gunman

In this text, I will write to you about Wyatt Earp, legendary sheriff and gunman, in the history of the USA, whose legend lives on today. I will tell you the facts from his and the lives of the people around him and who he influenced. Did the Wild West create Wyatt Earp or did he, to a certain extent, influence that and such a West, I leave it to you to judge !?

How did it all start?

Late in his life Henry Fonda, at dinner with a producer named Melvin Shestack, recalled meeting an old man who said he had firsthand knowledge of a memorable Fonda character, Wyatt Earp, the legendary frontier lawman of John Ford’s classic My Darling Clementine. The man said he “had met the old marshal several times as a child at the turn of the century, at his family’s Passover Seders in San Francisco.” Fonda thought the man was putting him on until years later he read a newspaper story which confirmed that Wyatt Earp was indeed married to a Jewish woman. “I wish now,” Fonda told Shestack, “that I’d talked to the man a bit longer.”

What Fonda might have found out was that Wyatt Earp’s ashes lie next to those of his common-law wife of forty-seven years in the Halls of Eternity Memorial Park, in Colma, California. In October 1957, when Earp’s fame was at its peak with Gunfight at the O.K. Corral riding high on the box office and The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp in the top five on television, some teenagers stole the headstone. Its recovery caused journalists and historians to speculate on whether Wyatt Earp had himself converted to Judaism. (“Hero of the O K Corral?” asked one columnist.) After all, Jewish cemeteries do not often admit Gentiles. What was the story?

The story was Josephine Sarah (“Sadie”) Marcus, Tombstone’s Helen of Troy, the most glamorous figure in the American West’s most enduring drama, who had always managed to keep her name out of Hollywood’s versions of the Earp story. She was born in 1859 to German Jewish parents who had emigrated to New York in the early 185Os. Sometime in the late 186Os her father, Hyman Marcus, moved his family to San Francisco. The Marcuses where well enough off to live, she said, “in a tall dark house with big windows, narrow hallways and staircases, fussy designs in the wooden balustrades and around the cornices.” It was to be the last house with fussy designs that Josephine would ever call her own; she knew at an early age that she was an adventuress, and for the next seven decades she lived in hotel rooms, mining shacks, tents, and cottages, “among persons who gladly dropped the pleasures of urban life for the hardship and the adventures of prospecting, or the excitement of boom mining camps.”

The San Francisco of Josephine’s girlhood was a sophisticated theater-going town, and when she was eighteen, the city went, in her words, “ Pinafore crazy.” When a friend urged her to join a traveling Gilbert and Sullivan troupe, she signed on with scarcely a second thought. She began a journey that took her to Los Angeles, San Bernardino, and finally Prescott, Arizona, before she ended up in the mining camp near the Mexican border known as Tombstone.

Tombstone was one of the most spectacular boom towns of the West, nothing like the dusty hellholes of old Hollywood Westerns. It got its name when a prospector discovered silver there in 1877, after soldiers from a nearby post scoffed that “all you’ll find there is your own tombstone.” But wells where dug, and once the desert area became inhabitable, people began to notice its beauty and agreeable climate; the elevation made it much cooler than most of the surrounding territory. By 1881 Tombstone was one of the largest settlements between Kansas City and San Francisco, with perhaps ten thousand residents, French restaurants, Chinese opium dens, a bowling alley, and an ice cream parlor.

Sometime in 1880, probably when the Pinafore troupe played Prescott, Josephine met a charming, glad-handing minor politico named John Behan. Behan would become sheriff of the newly formed Cochise County, which contained Tombstone, and Josie became his mistress, a fact that she successfully kept from her friends and family. In the fall of 1880 she was traveling by stage to Tombstone when she noticed a strikingly handsome young man who was serving as shotgun guard. “That,” whispered a friend, “is Morgan Earp, one of the Earp brothers. They all look so much alike you can hardly tell them apart.” Josephine was intrigued.

She knew what she wanted in life and what she wanted in a man. “I liked the traveling sort of man,” she is quoted as saying in a disputed version of memoirs, I Married Wyatt Earp , “better than the kind that sat back in one town all his life and wrote down little rows of figures all day or hustled dry goods or groceries and that sort of thing… My blood demanded excitement, variety and change.” Whether or not the words where actually Josephine’s, those sentiments certainly fit.

Josephine Marcus didn’t just seek excitement, she caused it. Bat Masterson described her as the “belle of the honkytonks, the prettiest dame in three hundred or so of her kind.” Allie Earp, the widow of Wyatt’s older brother Virgil, disliked her intensely. Allie’s biographer, Frank Waters, quotes her as describing Josephine as “full-fleshed” with a “small, trim body and a meneo [shake] of the hips that kept her full, flounced skirts bouncing. Certainly her strange accent, brought with her from New York to San Francisco, carried a music new to the ears of a Western gambler and gunman”.

Dating Wyatt

By gambler and gunman, Allie would have meant her brother in law Wyatt, whom she also disliked. Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp was born in Monmouth, Illinois, in 1848, of Scotch-Irish stock. His father, Nicholas Porter Earp, was a commanding figure, a sometimes frontier judge, whose other occupations included farmer, storekeeper, barrel maker, and still operator. Nick’s temperament was an odd mix of Unionist principles and loyalty to the Southern sympathies of his Virginian ancestors; his boys where all Union men: James, the eldest, Virgil, and their half-brother, Newton, all fought for the North, and Wyatt tried to enlist. Politically the Earp boys remained Lincoln Republicans all their lives, as did most of the great peace officers of the cattle-town era, including Wild Bill Hickok and the Masterson brothers, Bat, Ed, and Jim.

Nick was always restless, and he passed along the trait to his boys. Wyatt, by the time he was twenty, had lived in Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, and California and had worked as a stage driver and freight hauler, as a railroad spotter, and as a boxing referee. He married in his early twenties in Lamar, Missouri, and also wore his first badge there, with the title of constable. Then, without warning, his young wife, UrilIa, died, probably in childbirth. There followed a period of dissolution during which he left Missouri owing money to several people and became involved in a horse-stealing incident.

Earp never spoke to anyone of his wife’s death, but his character seemed to change dramatically afterward. His demeanor began to take on a dour, forbidding aspect (as Jack Crabb says of Earp in Thomas Berger’s great novel Little Big Man , “… . When he looked at you as if you was garbage, you might not have agreed with him, but you had sufficient doubt to stay your gun hand a minute. …”). For a year he supported himself as a buffalo hunter, and in the process he met Bat Masterson, Bill Tilghman, Neal Brown, and other men with whom he would later become colleagues on the celebrated Dodge City police force. After a brief stint as a deputy marshal in Wichita, he found his calling as a peace officer during Dodge City’s glory years.

Switch to Dodge City or Tombstone

In two dozen movies and in a long running television series, Wyatt Earp was always depicted as the marshal of Dodge City or Tombstone, the archetypal frontier lawman. In a way he was the archetypal frontier lawman, but technically he was never the town marshal or county sheriff of anywhere. In Tombstone, he served as a deputy county sheriff, deputy town marshal under his brother Virgil, and deputy U.S. marshal; in Dodge City, where town marshal was largely an administrative position, he was a highly effective street cop. But he undeniably regarded himself as a “city marshal”; he often padded his résumé with the title.

Earp was a new kind of Western cop, one who planned ahead and took no unnecessary chances. (He and Bat Masterson would plant shotguns at key buildings in town in case they where forced to make strategic retreats.) This meant working as part of a team and with other levels of law enforcement, such as the county sheriff’s office.

Dodge City began as a buffalo hunter’s camp and soon developed a ferocious reputation as a man-killing town. Things got only slightly better when the emphasis changed to cattle, particularly when swarms of tired, thirsty cowhands hit the end of the trail. For the most part the cowhands where rough, good natured Southern youths letting off steam, but as the Greek proverb says, the boys throw stones in jest but the frogs die in earnest; a bullet through a bedroom window could kill as surely as a bullet aimed at a human.

The authorities first responded to the problem by hiring “shootists” or “pistoleers” such as Wild Bill Hickok, but this quickly turned sour after a few killings (on one memorable occasion Wild Bill even shot and killed a fellow officer). Since most of the cattle drivers where Texans, and many of them ex-Confederates, it seemed only a matter of time before the pre-Civil War memories of “Bloody Kansas” would be relived in the streets of Dodge City. Because the cowhands where the town’s economic lifeblood, the trick, from the city fathers’ perspective, was to keep them in line without chasing them away. The answer was policemen such as Wyatt Earp.

By the time tales of Wyatt’s Dodge City exploits saw print, they had been embellished and exaggerated to the level of folklore, but what inspired people in his own time was not his prowess as a gunfighter but his ability to keep order without firing a gun. In fact, the most famous gunfighter of the American West killed only one man in Dodge City, a rowdy Texan named George Hoyt who took some potshots at him in front of a music hall where the comedian Eddie Foy was playing. The real function of the long-barreled Colts carried by Earp and the other Kansas officers wasn’t duels but “buffaloing,” a relatively humane action that consisted of cracking the barrel of the revolver over the head of an offender and dragging him off to jail, where the arresting officer might be rewarded with as much as $2.50.

By 1878 Dodge had been, compared with its 1875 and 1876 standards, pretty much tamed. Still, the decline in street violence didn’t save Bat’s younger brother Ed, then the city marshal, from being shot to death by a drunken cowhand in April of that year. That event helped sour Earp on the dirty, dangerous profession of “lawing.”

This was the background of the budding legend who arrived in Tombstone in 1879 with three of his brothers, James, Virgil, and Morgan. They probably came with little or no intention of getting back into law enforcement. Wyatt wanted to start a passenger and freight-hauling business, but finding two stage lines already operating, he switched to real estate, mine speculation, and gambling – this last occupation still being generally regarded as one of the frontier’s more respectable professions. In her memoirs Josephine told a story of how Dr. Endicott Peabody, future mentor to Franklin D. Roosevelt at the Groton School, came to the Oriental Saloon seeking funds for the first Protestant church in Tombstone. Earp had been winning at cards and put a stack of bills from his pile in front of the minister. “Here’s my contribution, Mr. Peabody,” he said. Then he told the other players, “Now each of you has to give the same.” Peabody’s St. Paul’s Church stands in Tombstone to this day.

Almost immediately upon their arrival in Tombstone, the Earps found themselves pulled back into the only steady work they where good at. They where drawn partly by their connections with Wells, Fargo & Company, whose shipments where preyed on by local bandits, but also by their temperament: Wyatt had con men for friends his entire life, and he may have been involved in some of their schemes, but on duty he, like all the Earps, was a straight arrow. Wyatt once received public praise from a man who was carried drunk to a Wichita jail and awoke the next morning to find he still had his five-hundred-dollar roll. Virgil was such a stickler for law and order he once arrested Wyatt for disturbing the peace, and on another occasion he fined his own boss, Mayor Clum, for driving his horses too fast on the city streets.

The Clanton family

As the only real law in southeast Arizona, the Earps repeatedly clashed with the local criminal element, a loose confederacy of perhaps fifty to sixty mostly former Texans, known collectively as the Cowboys, a term that denoted a degree of rascality. The Cowboys had no designated leader, but a local rancher and Confederate veteran, Newman Haynes “Old Man” Clanton, seemed to hold a position of authority. Later, after Clanton was killed in a cattle-stealing raid by Mexican soldiers, Curly Bill Brocius and the brooding and enigmatic John Ringo, described by one Tombstone chronicler as “a Hamlet among outlaws,” where held in especially high esteem by fellow cattle thieves. Clanton’s three sons, Ike, Phinn, and Billy, and the McLaury brothers, Frank and Tom, had ranches. Their chief occupation wasn’t ranching, though, but stealing from the cattle-rich haciendas just across the border in Sonora and selling cheaply to small ranchers around Tombstone. In the eyes of Arizona’s Anglo ranchers, most of whom where contemptuous of Mexicans, the Cowboys held the same high status as the James and Younger brothers held among hill folks in Missouri. Prosecution of them was virtually impossible because the U.S. government refused the Army permission to police the border with Mexico, and the county law, represented by Josephine’s new love John Behan, was in league with Brocius, the Clantons, and their friends (the Cowboys where useful as strong-arm men in town lot disputes and in rigging elections for the Democratic party, much the way New York street gangs served Tammany Hall). Behan looked the other way at Cowboy atrocities; some suspected stage robbers (such as his own deputy, Frank Stilwell) weren’t convicted, and others escaped from jail with impunity.

When Josephine Marcus got off the stagecoach in Tombstone, she had no idea of the maelstrom of violence that was approaching. The town itself was quiet enough, largely because Virgil Earp and his brothers had imposed a strict and unpopular gun-control law within its limits. But on the border the Cowboys where massacring Mexican nationals and being cut down in reprisals (one of which resulted in the death of Old Man Clanton). As the Mexican government beefed up its Sonoran garrisons, the Cowboys turned to prey on the few big ranchers on the American side and, finally, on Wells, Fargo silver shipments.

By 1881 the forces on each side where lined up for a major confrontation. Behan and the Cowboys had the backing of the Democratic, anti-Earp Daily Nugget ; the Earps had behind them the Tombstone Epitaph and another, less respectable ally, a Philadelphia dental-college graduate turned gambler named John Henry (“Doc”) Holliday. The black sheep son of a former Confederate officer, Holiday had a lurid, if somewhat undeserved, reputation as a killer. In fact, he had behaved himself in Dodge City and, despite several embarrassing scrapes, had killed no one in Tombstone. Next to his irascible temper, Holiday’s most distinguishing characteristic was his fierce and unfathomable loyalty to Wyatt Earp.

In the fall of 1881, Earp’s homelife disintegrated. He had come to Tombstone with a woman named Celia Ann Blaylock, of whom we know almost nothing. Eighty years later the publication of Allie Earp’s alleged memoirs, The Earp Brothers of Tombstone, would create the image of Josephine Marcus as a flirtatious home wrecker, but in all likelihood Wyatt, by the time he met her, had very little home left to wreck. Josephine, for her part, had become disillusioned with Behan, and after catching him in bed with the wife of a friend of theirs, she moved out.

In 1881 Josephine’s father sent her a letter, urging her to return to San Francisco. She stayed on till, probably, the early spring of 1882, most likely because of Wyatt Earp. We don’t know when or under what circumstances she first encountered him; the Allie of Earp Brothers recalls Wyatt “polishin’ his boots so he could prance into a fancy restaurant with Sadie,” but there’s no record of Wyatt and Josephine’s ever being seen together in Tombstone. The town was huge for a mining camp, but not big enough for Wyatt Earp to be out with a beautiful young woman without anyone’s noticing.

A good bet is that the high-spirited Josephine didn’t sit at home at night, as did most other frontier women, but that she frequented the same bars, gambling halls, music rooms, and theaters as John Behan. So did Wyatt, and whatever brief moments he and Josie had together they made good use of; a bond that would last nearly half a century was established.

But in the summer of 1881, Wyatt couldn’t have had much time for any kind of personal life. Stage robberies where increasing, and in one a driver was murdered in cold blood. A rumor surfaced, started by the Nugget, connecting Holiday with the robbery, although there is no evidence that he was ever involved in anything worse than a saloon brawl.

Wyatt resolved to catch the stage robbers, partly to clear Holiday’s name and also to get himself publicity for a sheriff’s election against Behan. He went to Ike Clanton with a deal: Wells, Fargo would pay thirty-six hundred dollars (or twelve hundred apiece) for the three stage robbers known to ride with the Clantons. According to Earp, Ike accepted the offer. What went wrong from there we’ll never know, but on the night of October 25 and the morning of the twenty-sixth, Ike, apparently terrified that word of the deal was going to get to his Cowboy friends, wandered around Tombstone threatening the lives of Doc Holiday and anyone named Earp. At one point Virgil Earp clubbed him, brought him into court, and fined him. Later Tom McLaury showed up, had words with Wyatt, and got himself clubbed.

Most people in the cowboys’ places would have taken this as a good time to leave town, but when Frank McLaury (who Wyatt later said was in on the deal to turn over the stage robbers) and Billy Clanton showed up, the Clantons and McLaurys dawdled around town, making threats against the Earps, carrying guns in defiance of the local ordinance, and, finally, loitering in an empty lot in back of the O.K. Corral, next to Fly’s Photography Studio.

Gunfight at the O.K. Corral

Which is where the most famous gunfight of the Old West took place. The Earps, a block and a half away, waited until it was obvious that they had to do something or “show the white feather”—retreat. Sheriff Behan apparently tried to disarm the Cowboys but was told by Frank McLaury that he wouldn’t give up his gun unless the Earps—the city police, after all—gave up theirs. At about 2:45 on the afternoon of October 26, the Earps and Holiday began their fateful walk to the lot, a scene that Hollywood would replicate some two dozen times.

A minute later the four swung to the left and entered the lot. Nine men and two horses where suddenly gathered in a space perhaps eighteen feet wide.

“You sons of bitches,” somebody in the Earp party said, “you have been looking for a fight and you can have it!” That, at any rate, is what witnesses friendly to the Cowboys later testified. More than likely this was fiction, as none of the participants had heard such a remark. But everyone heard Virgil’s order: “Throw up your guns.”!

Nobody did. Instead, there where two quick clicks—probably Frank McLaury and Billy Clanton pulling back the hammers on their single-action Colts—and Wyatt Earp, the most famous gunfighter in the Old West, drew his gun in a fight for the first and only time in his life.

Most witnesses say two shots where fired almost simultaneously, and then the fight became general. Almost thirty seconds later, Frank McLaury, a bullet in his stomach, staggered forward onto Fremont Street, aimed his pistol at Doc Holiday, and grunted, “I have you now, you son of a bitch.”

McLaury pulled his trigger, the bullet grazed Holiday’s hip, and Morgan and Doc returned the fire. Both shots hit McLaury; either one would have killed him.

It was over. Three men lay dead—the McLaury brothers and Billy Clanton—and three others had been wounded—Virgil and Morgan Earp and Holiday. Only Ike Clanton, who ran, and Wyatt Earp, who had told Ike to “get to fighting or get away,” where unscathed. Who fired first? In the inquest that followed, Behan, Ike Clanton, and their friends said the Earp faction did; the Earps said the Cowboys did. The testimony of nonpartisan witnesses mostly agreed with Virgil and Wyatt; Judge Wells Spicer paid particular attention to them and ruled for the Earps.

In I Married Wyatt Earp, Josephine runs down to the lot as the echoes from the gunshots are fading. “I almost swooned,” she writes, “when I saw Wyatt’s tall figure very much alive, starting up Fremont Street with Doc and Fred Dodge [a friend of Earp’s and an agent for Wells, Fargo] on the opposite side of the street. He spotted me, and all three came across the street. Like a feather-brained girl my only thought was, ‘My God, I haven’t got a bonnet on. What will they think?’ But you can imagine my real relief at seeing my love alive. I was simply a little hysterical.” She had good reason to be. In the few months she would remain in Tombstone, the violence would only worsen.

Until recently Hollywood made the gunfight at the O.K. Corral the climax of the movie; in real life the street fight in Tombstone, as it was called for many years, was merely the first battle in a war that would claim many more lives. In December, Virgil Earp was shotgunned from ambush and lost the use of his left arm forever. Three months later Morgan was shot in the back while playing pool and died in Wyatt’s arms. Then began the truly controversial period of Wyatt Earp’s career as a lawman. He asked for and received Virgil’s deputy U.S. marshal’s badge, and surrounding himself with Doc Holiday and a handful of other trusted associates, he hunted down the men suspected of killing his brother.

Revenge

At the train depot in Tucson, where Morgan’s body was being shipped to the family in California, Wyatt encountered Behan’s former deputy Frank Stilwell, one of the prime suspects. Stilwell’s bullet- and buckshot-riddled body was discovered the next day. If Josephine had anxious moments after the gunfight, then Wyatt’s Vendetta Ride, as it came to be known, must have been agony for her. For weeks his posse scoured the hills, looking for Cowboys implicated in Morgan’s murder. All the major papers in the West carried reports on Earp’s whereabouts; more than one reported him dead. In San Francisco, Josephine and her parents could read about every fresh outbreak of violence in the Examiner and other local papers.

On March 24, in the hills outside Tombstone, Earp’s party encountered several Cowboys led by Curly Bill Brocius. Wyatt would swear to his dying day that he singled out Brocius and cut him nearly in two with shots from a Wells, Fargo model shotgun. Cowboys adherents still claim that Brocius was never at the fight; he had reformed and moved away. But no one who wasn’t closely connected with the Cowboys ever claimed to see Brocius again.

Satisfied that Morgan’s death was avenged, and with a murder warrant on him for the killing of Stilwell, Earp rode out of Arizona, leaving friends and enemies to debate forever the question of federal versus local authority, of frontier justice versus the law. Wyatt himself engaged in no such discussions; he felt he had killed first in self defense and then in revenge for his brothers, and he excused himself for the former and accepted the blame for the latter. He let it go at that; his supporters and detractors would not.

John Behan pursued his own vendetta. He tried to extradite Wyatt Earp and Doc Holiday from Colorado to Arizona only to be rebuffed publicly by the governors of both states. He may have been motivated partly by personal enmity. He made a trip to San Francisco early in 1882, probably to try to win Josephine back.

The territorial Democrats deserted Behan, and he failed to be re-elected sheriff. He later surfaced as warden of the Pima County prison, and he never saw Josephine Marcus again.

Relocations

A few months after leaving Arizona, Earp was in San Francisco with Josephine. One can imagine the reaction of her parents, having read for a year about the violence in and around Tombstone and now finding their daughter attached to the man at the center of it all. Early in 1883 the couple left the Bay Area to embark on an odyssey of the mining camps and boom towns of the West. In 1887 Earp had a meeting with Doc Holiday in Denver. Holiday, ravaged by tuberculosis, had only a short time to live. As they parted he threw his arm over Earp’s shoulder. “Good-bye, old friend,” he said. “It will be a long time before we meet again.” Josie said Wyatt cried, the only recorded instance of his doing so.

Wyatt and Josie went to San Diego in its boom years in the mid-1880s, back to San Francisco in the 189Os, then to Alaska during its gold rush, where they kept company with Jack London, Rex Beach (who wrote the most famous novel of the gold-rush era, The Spoilers ), the playwright Wilson Mizner, Jack Dempsey’s future promoter Tex Rickard, and a young mining engineer who hung out at Wyatt’s saloon, Herbert Hoover.

Biographies

The pair went through several small fortunes and finally settled in Los Angeles, where they lived in genteel poverty. Earp never escaped the memory of the Cochise County war; no matter where he went in the West, every few years a national magazine, Harper’s Weekly, Police Gazette, or Scribner’s , or a newspaper in New York, Los Angeles, Denver, or San Francisco would resurrect the story of the shootout in Tombstone, usually mangling the facts beyond recognition.

He craved privacy while continuing to attract attention. Like other former Arizonans in California, he enjoyed meeting actors who where playing scrubbed-up versions of men like him. He became friends with an aspiring young director named John Ford, who would one day make the most pristine of Earp pictures, My Darling Clementine, and he did some advisory work for Tom Mix and William S. Hart.

Meanwhile, a Chicago-based journalist named Walter Noble Burns, who had made himself famous with his 1925 biography The Saga of Billy the Kid, wrote Tombstone: An Iliad of the Southwest, the first bestseller with Earp as its hero. The following year one of Behan’s old deputies, Billy Breakenridge, published Helldorado, a self-serving combination of lies and half truths that attempted to debunk the Earp legend while nonetheless putting Wyatt at the center of the action in Tombstone.

The two books made Earp more famous than ever—and also made him furious. In 1928 Stuart Lake, a former press secretary for Theodore Roosevelt and a newspaper colleague of Bat Masterson in New York, contacted him about a possible biography. Earp was ready, but as it turned out, he had less than a year to live. He died in 1929. Wyatt and Josie had been together for forty seven years; there is no record that they where ever married.

Wyatt’s death didn’t stop Lake; he proceeded to write most of the book in Earp’s voice. Lake’s problem wasn’t the absence of Earp but the presence of Josephine, who wanted, she told him, a nice, clean story, meaning one with minimal violence and nothing about her involvement with Behan or about the woman who had been with Earp when he arrived in Tombstone. Despite those restrictions, Lake plowed ahead, producing Wyatt Earp: Frontier Marshal in 1931. Perhaps a third of the book was exaggerated, and another third was simply invented, but its tone was respectful enough to please Josephine, and it became a huge bestseller. More than that, it became the basis for a Stuart Lake Earp empire, which included the John Ford movie and the highly successful television series The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp, which starred Hugh O’Brian and ran from 1955 to 1961, and which put Earp’s name on cap pistols, comic books, and lunch boxes.

Josephine still wanted to impose her version of events on the public, and she began work on an autobiography. “Such tributes to Wyatt,” she wrote, probably in the late 1930s, “are a tremendous compensation for the many lies that have been told of him, and I intend to continue to refute those stories in whatever way I can until I die or until they are quieted for all time.” But the Tombstone chapter became a huge stumbling block, and she died in 1944 without having provided a finished manuscript. Stuart Lake became full-time caretaker of the Earp legend.

Not everyone was happy with that fact. Virgil’s widow, Allie, for instance, was jealous that Wyatt and not Virgil (who was, after all, the marshal of Tombstone) had become world-famous. She also harbored an intense dislike for Josephine that may have been tinged with antisemitism. Frank Waters, a Hollywood screenwriter, interviewed Allie during the 1930s and began writing what would become the foremost among Earp debunking books, The Earp Brothers of Tombstone. No one named Earp was pleased with Waters’s efforts. Josephine threatened to sue Allie when she found out about it; she needn’t have bothered. Allie and her family rejected the project too. Frank Waters saw all the Earps, not just Wyatt, as reflections of the predatory spirit of modern, capitalistic America—Wyatt was a servant of the despoilers of the West, the mining companies and Wells, Fargo—and this view soon became popular in leftist circles among writers looking to take down the most popular law-and-order symbol of the Cold War era. The Earp Brothers of Tombstone was not published until 1960, long after anyone who could stop it was dead.

A book about the Earps

The book started an anti-Earp reaction. John Ford felt betrayed by its revelations; when he made Cheyenne Autumn in 1964, he had James Stewart portray Earp as a puffed-up, white suited bully. John Sturges, who had directed Gunfight at the O.K. Corral in 1957, made a 1967 follow-up film, Hour of the Gun, in which James Garner played Earp not as the principled lawman Burt Lancaster had been but as a self-styled avenger who used his badge to murder his brother’s assassins. The most extreme of the anti-Earp films was Frank Perry’s Doc (1971), with Harris Yulin as Earp and Stacy Keach as Doc Holiday. Its script, by Pete Hamill, portrayed Wyatt as a sadistic homosexual secretly longing for Holiday. The film was a Vietnam allegory: The Earps and Doc Holiday bring superior firepower to the O.K. Corral—shotguns—and blow the Clantons away, but the people rise against the evil Earps at the next election and send them packing.

From here things could only get better for Wyatt. Tombstone (1993), with Kurt Russell, and Wyatt Earp (1994), with Kevin Costner, finally took balanced views and they where the first films to feature Josephine.

In recent years, the Earp Brothers of Tombstone has come to look like dubious history in which Waters imposed his own views on Allie. His tape-recorded interviews with her, if they ever existed, are in the hands of shadowy Earp collectors, and no one is quite sure where Waters’s notes and various drafts are. Josephine’s I Married Wyatt Earp, edited by Glen G. Boyer and published in 1976 by the University of Arizona Press, is now dismissed by many historians as fraudulent.

Boyer, in his own words, found that Josephine’s own unfinished manuscript (which is well documented) “lacked the necessary detail on Tombstone, so it was essential to couple it with [an] earlier, more frank manuscript before a complete narrative could be achieved.” But that earlier manuscript, supposedly containing a Tombstone chapter and shocking revelations, such as the gunfight’s having been started by Doc Holiday and Morgan Earp, is now thought by nearly all Western historians to be a fiction. At various times Boyer has ascribed his added material to a combination of Josephine Marcus and Jack London, Rex Beach, and even Dashiell Hammett, and for years he has insisted that he has the documents on file to prove that I Married Wyatt Earp is solid history. But last July he told the Tucson Star that many key documents where lost years ago in a “messy” divorce settlement.

Josephine outlived Wyatt by fifteen years. The money she received from Frontier Marshal, and a little later from films loosely based on it, alleviated the state of genteel poverty she had lived in with Wyatt in his last years. In her seventies she fought to become the guardian of his legend, storming movie lots and trying to halt productions of the first Earp movie, Law and Order (1932), starring Walter Huston, and, later, Frontier Marshal (1936), starring Randolph Scott. She relented on both films but still felt they put too much emphasis on the few violent moments in Earp’s life. He would no doubt have concurred. She died content that she had kept herself from becoming a character in a Hollywood movie about Wyatt Earp.

A newspaperman in The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance says, “This is the West, sir. When the past becomes legend, print the legend.” Probably the reality of Wyatt Earp and the shootout can never be finally disentangled from the legend. Now even the story of the woman who was at the center of the West’s most enduring legend seems to have quickly been absorbed, and overcome, by legend. Someday an enterprising university press will put her actual memoirs into print, and Josephine will finally have her day.

 

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Learning From: success of Jack LaLanne

In this content, I will write to you on the topic: “Learning From: success of Jack LaLanne”, a man who has pushed boundaries in the way he exercises!

Jack LaLanne was a pioneer in the world of fitness.

The gyms that you see all over town? He opened one of the nation’s first fitness gyms in 1936.

The machines that fill those gyms? He invented dozens of them.

All of those home workout videos and television weight loss shows? He was the man who first brought fitness into your living room. The Jack LaLanne Show was the longest–running television exercise program of all time. It was on television for 34 years.

And that’s just his business career.

If you really want to be impressed, take a look at a handful of his personal fitness achievements.

Here are a few of the fitness feats that LaLanne accomplished…

  • He swam from Alcatraz to Fisherman’s Wharf in San Francisco while wearing handcuffs.
  • At age 42, he set the world record for push ups by doing over 1,000 in 23 minutes.
  • At age 45, he did 1,000 jumping jacks and 1,000 pull ups in 1 hour and 22 minutes.
  • At age 60, he swam from Alcatraz to Fisherman’s Wharf for the second time. This time he not only wore handcuffs, but also towed a 1,000 pound boat.

LaLanne was in such remarkable shape that he could do one—armed fingertip push ups while in a completely stretched out position.

Ready for something really incredible?

To celebrate his 70th birthday, LaLanne swam 1.5 miles along the California coast from the Queen’s Way Bridge to Long Beach Harbor. And he did it while wearing handcuffs and shackles on his arms and legs and towing 70 row boats holding 70 people.

It sounds impossible, but the 70–year–old LaLanne finished the swim with all of the boats dragging along behind him.

What made Jack LaLanne Different?

In some ways, LaLanne’s accomplishments are so out of the ordinary that it’s hard to translate them into our own lives. (I mean, I love doing fitness challenges, but I’m not planning to tow 70 boats anytime soon.)

Thankfully, there is a lesson you can learn from Jack LaLanne that applies to nearly everything in your life. You won’t discover it by looking at his accomplishments, but rather, by examining his daily habits.

The daily routine of Jack LaLanne

The only way you can hurt the body is not use it.

—Jack LaLanne

LaLanne was a big believer in rituals and routines. He realized the power that consistent daily actions could have on his life.

Here are a few of the habits that Jack LaLanne did every day for decades…

  • Lift weights and do strength training for 90 minutes;
  • Swim or run for 30 minutes (in addition to his strength training);
  • Eat 10 raw vegetables;
  • Eat two meals: a late breakfast and an early dinner;
  • Wake up at 4am (in his later years, LaLanne “slept in” until 5am);

Look at that list. It’s not overly long, but imagine doing those things not just for one day or one week, but for 60 years like Jack LaLanne did.

Even at age 94, LaLanne was still exercising for two hours every day. 90 minutes of strength training. 30 minutes of swimming or walking. 10 raw vegetables. Every. Single. Day. For 60 years.

When we see someone who accomplishes something incredible, the easy way out is to discount it, chalk it up to natural talent or genetics, and claim that they were born with something you could never have. It takes the responsibility off of you. But the truth is that most incredible people — even the ones who accomplish superhuman feats — are simply more consistent than everyone else.

It was his incredible consistency that made Jack LaLanne superhuman.

When you look at Jack LaLanne’s life, it’s easy to focus on the big accomplishments and overlook the daily habits. Similarly, in your own life it’s easy to spend all of your time focused on transformations, big goals, and rapid changes, and forget that it’s the daily habits that lead to long–term success.

Success is any field is about lifestyle choices, not life–changing transformations. It’s your daily routine that will carry you to wherever it is you want to go.

If something is important to you, do it!

How did Jack LaLanne stick to his daily habits with such consistency?

Do you think he just waited until he felt motivated to workout each day? No way. His consistency has very little to do with willpower or motivation. Nobody is motivated every day for 60 years.

LaLanne knew what was important to him and so he scheduled it into his life. He started every day with strength training. Then he did his swimming and walking. Then he has his breakfast. Same order. Same time. Every time.

If you look at LaLanne’s daily habits, everything had a time and place when it was going to happen. Can you say the same about your goals?

So often we tell ourselves things like, “I’m going to eat healthier” or “I’m going to workout more” or “I’m going to start writing more” … but we never say when and where these things are actually going to happen.

Carve out some time. Pick a date. Choose a place. Give your actions a time and a space to live.

LaLanne didn’t rely on his willpower or motivation. He just stuck to his daily schedule. That’s how all professionals approach their work.

Lessons from LaLanne: keeping life in perspective

In his later years, Jack LaLanne was fond of saying, “I can’t afford to die. It would ruin my image.”

Eventually, he passed away at 96 years old. And in all of those years, I think one of his greatest accomplishments was holding on to his happiness as much as his health. Even with all of his fitness achievements, LaLanne didn’t ruin the rest of his life in pursuit of a particular goal.

The balance between achievement and happiness is something that I think about often – not just in my own life, but also in what I write on this site. I’m still working on it, but I believe that you don’t have to be dissatisfied to be driven. There’s no reason you can’t love the life you have and want to make it better at the same time.

But it’s not easy. Happiness and gratefulness require constant tending, much like diet and exercise. Your happiness and your health form the basic foundation of your life. There’s nothing new or complex about this — despite what the newest commercials for health products, new drugs, and fitness programs want you to believe.

This balance between happiness and achievement is something that I’m working on getting better at myself. What Jack LaLanne showed us — not just in his words, but also through how he lived — is that you can do incredible things and have a wonderful time while doing it.

Learning from Jack LaLanne

Jack LaLanne lived an incredible life, and he mastered something that we can all benefit from: the daily routine.

Is there a skill that is more valuable than the ability to consistently work towards goals that are important to you while maintaining a sense of perspective and happiness?

It’s not the incredible achievements, but rather your daily habits that determine who you are and what you accomplish. Get your habits handled, and the rest will fall into place. If we can take this small lesson and apply it to our lives, there is no doubt we will all be better off for it.

 

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If you have any questions or suggestions, please leave them in the comments!

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Stephen King: a new era of horror movies

The world outside of central Maine almost never got to know Stephen King. If not for his wife’s diligence and her confidence in her husband, the book that launched a million pages might have never come into being. When his wife Tabitha rescued the start of the manuscript of “Carrie” from the trash and insisted her husband finish it, King was working as an English teacher and writing on the side. Tabitha’s judgment was right, “Carrie” became a smash hit, and Stephen King is one of the world’s most famous and most prolific authors. So, what’s the story behind the stories?

In the following text, I will describe the life story of Stephen King: a new era of horror movies.

Early life

Stephen King was born in Portland, Maine, the largest city of the mostly rural state that serves as the setting for so many of his famous stories. Stephen was the second son born to Nellie and Donald King, but the family of four soon, became family of three soon. When Stephen was only two years old, and his brother only four, their father went out, telling the family he was buying a pack of cigarettes. He never returned!

King’s mother worked several jobs, moving with the boys from Maine, going from state to state to find work and a place she could afford to live and raise two boys on her own. But, Maine was home, and it’s where the family eventually settled for good.

When they moved back to Maine, the family didn’t have indoor plumbing. And this was the 1960s. King’s life growing up was a far cry from the wealth he has now.

But King didn’t see his childhood as exceptional or out of the ordinary. Though he does acknowledge he’s always liked scary things.

Some have said that King might also be inspired to write such horrifying stories by a childhood event he doesn’t even remember.

As traumatic as that event must have been, it was not the only explanation for King’s vivid imagination. Friends of the King tell stories about how the family was known for their attention to literature. If their mother couldn’t find – or couldn’t afford – a babysitter, she’d leave her sons alone with the expectation they would read aloud to each other.

King’s love of stories and the written word was fostered from an early age. And, the tradition stuck – King and his wife Tabitha, also made their own kids read aloud to each other, and to hem. He’d even record them on cassettes to make the family their own collection of audio books.

Growing up, Kings also wrote material for his brother’s newsletter. Called “Dave’s Rag”, they made copies on a mimeograph machine and distributed it to their friends. But King was soon able to move beyond just writing for his sibling’s newsletter. In 1965, when he was still in high school, King was published in Comics Review. The story was right in line with the frightening plots we all know King for today. King had been working as a gravedigger to earn money as a teenager. The job inspired him to write a story called “I was a teenage grave robber”, and its publication was his first taste of published success. The only downside – he didn’t get paid for the work. His first paid published work didn’t come until he was in college and earned $35 for a story called “The glass floor”.

King graduated from Lisbon Falls High school, the high school in the town that later became the settings for portions of the book “11/22/63”. Lisbon Falls was a milltown and Kings spent time working in the town’s mill when he was a teenager.

College and career start

After graduation, King had aspirations to be a writer. So he headed north of the University of Maine Orono to earn a degree in English literature. While in college, King was a columnist for the college paper, was outspoken against the Vietnam war and worked in the college library. That same library is now home to many of King’s papers. It’s also where he met his wife. Tabitha was looking for a book in the stacks, King passed by and struck up a conversation with her and four years later, the literary couple had graduated, had a daughter and was married.

Though King had been writing in college, he was far from being able to support himself and a growing family just by writing. He, Tabitha and their daughter Naomi were living in a trailer outside of Bango and King was working two jobs. He was teaching English at Hampden Academy and in the summers was pumping gas at local station while also working shifts at a laundromat. Tabitha took on shifts at a Dunkin’ Donuts and they struggled to get by. But, King was always made time to write. Even in the cramped quarters of the family’s trailer, he made a point to set aside space for a writing desk and typewriter. 2 000 words a day was his goal and that’s goal he stands by today.

Eventually, King earned a teaching certificate and was able to put his college education to use as a teacher at Hampden Academy. The work still wasn’t what he wanted to be doing, though. It was writing he loved and writing that he wanted to earn a living from.

Writing has always been his purpose in life, as he explains: “There was nothing else I was made to do. I was made to write stories and I love to write stories. That’s way I do it. I really can’t imagine doing anything else and I can’t imagine not doing what I do”.

Though it took years of effort, his big break did come. After Tabitha fished the beginning “Carrie” out of the trass in 1973, King finished the book and sent it off to a publisher.

The family wasn’t doing well financially when he sent “Carrie” in and they couldn’t even afford a phone. So he got the news via telegram…he’d be receiving a 2500,oo dollars, advance and Doubleday would be publishing “Carrie”. Then…even better news. The paperback rights were sold for 400 000,oo dollars. King could quit teaching and write full – time and his family would be better off than they had ever dared imagine.

The book was a smash hit! Within the next year, a million copies were sold and only three years later it was made into an Academy Award-winning movie. Stephen King was now officially a writer and an American celebrity.

But success didn’t mean that King settled into a completely untroubled life. As he kept writing, cranking out books like “Misery”, “Cujo” and “Pet Sematary”, he was drinking heavily…and he knew he had a problem. King told Rolling Stone:

“Nobody in the house drank but me. My wife would have a glass of wine and that was all. So I went in the garage one night and the trash can that was set aside for beer cans was full to the top”.

It had been empty the week before. I was drinking like, like a case of beer a night. And I thought, “I’m an alcoholic”. That was probably about ’78, ’79. I thought, “I’ve gotta be really careful, because if somebody says: ‘You’re drinking too much, you have to quit’, I won’t be able to”.

He knew he had a problem, but he didn’t stop drinking. In fact, he took it one step further. In the late 70s, King started doing cocaine, using it at night while he was writing. By this time, he and Tabitha had three kids and he knew his addictions were taking a toll both on his family and his writing. He attributes the length of Tommy knockers to cocaine and looking back has said the book could have been half the length if so much of it hadn’t been inspired purely by his drugged – up energy. He’s also said he doesn’t even remember writing “Cujo”, so bad was his consumption of alcohol and drugs during the 80s.

And, “The shining” and “Misery” both carry an undercurrent of reference to his struggles – Jack Torrence is an alcoholic in “The Shining” and Kings has described the antagonist of “Misery” as essentially the personification of cocaine.

It wasn’t until the late 80s, when Tabitha threatened to leave him and the family staged a dramatic intervention that King cleaned up his act. At the intervention, his family displayed drug paraphernalia and pills they had collected from the trash. King with the decision to get sober. Now, he’s been sober for nearly three decades.

During the 1990s and into the 21st century, King continued to be one of the world’s most prolific and well – known writers. His books spawned movies and mini – series and over 350 million copies of his books have been sold.

After he became so popular, King took the step of publishing under a pseudonym – Richard Bachman. He wanted to see if he could still get books published and have them sell without his now – famous name splashed across the front. Turns out, he could.

The first bookhe published under the name Richard Bachman was “Rage”. Set in King’s familiar world of a Maine high school, the book tells the story of a teenager who engages in violent acts at his school. He sets his locker on fire, shoots his algebra teacher and attacks another student with a wrench. In 1977, it was a figment of King’s imagination. But in the late 1980s and 1990s, the book unfortunately started to resemble actual occurrences at schools the United States. In 1997, after a student shot eight people at a prayer meeting in Kentucky, it was discovered that he had a copy of “Rage” in his locker. Disturbed by this, King asked his publisher to take the book out of print. To this day, “Rage” remains out of print.

Accident

Even as his success grew, King remained living in Maine. The family owns a home in Bangor and a home in lovell near the lakes for the summer. It was near the home in Lovell that King’s life almost ended in 1999.

King was taking a walk along one of the winding, wooded roads that are so familiar a part of Maine’s landscape. Then, a van smashed into him from behind. King was knocked off the road, into a ditch. Witnesses said he was in a heap and it was clear his leg was broken. His glasses flew off and landed in the van that hit him.

At the hospital, he underwent multiple surgeries and had to do physical therapy as part of his recovery.

Bryan Smith, the driver who hit King, had a track record of driving infractions, including Operating Under the Influence (OUI). The King accident was blamed on the Smith’s dog distracting him, causing him to swerve into the author. Smith received a six-month jail sentence that was later suspended and has his license revoked for a year. King was upset…he wanted Smith’s license revoked for life given his history of bad driving.

Only a year after the accident, Smith was found dead in his trailer at the age of 43. He died of a painkiller overdose and in twist of fate that seemed straight out of a King novel – he died on King’s birthday, September 21st.

King sustained horrific injuries in the accident, but he resumed writing only a month after being released from the hospital. He finished the highly regarded “On Writing” and in 2000 the book was published, but by 2002, King decided that he simply didn’t have the strength to keep writing as he had in the past. Where he had previously sat and typed for hours at a time, it now hurt him to sit for long periods. Addiction had also become part of his life again. After the accident, he took OxyContin to deal with the pain from his injuries and became addicted. As he had a decade earlier, he was able to overcome the addiction and live soberly.

The lure of the written word ultimately proved too strong for his post – accident injuries and struggles and so King returned to his craft. He has said that he literally needs to write to live. What would happen if he didn’t write?

“Oh, I’d be dead. I would have drunk myself to death or drugged myself to death or committed suicide”.

Since his accident, he’s published dozens of stories and books, including “Mr. Mercedes”, “Duma Key” “11/22/63” and “Under the dome”.

A die hard Red Sox fan, like so many of his New England neighbors, Stephen King also co – wrote a book after The Red Sox 2004. World series win. Faithful: two die hard Boston Red Sox fans chronicle the historic 2004. Seasons, shared the story of the emotional roller coaster King and so many other Red Sox fans rode throughout the summer and fall of 2004.

In a further display of his eclectic interests and abilities, King dabbles in music. He played guitar for “The rock bottom remainders”, a band whose other members you might recognize too: Amy Tan, Dave Barry and Matt Groening are only a few of the other celebrities who joined King on stage.

And, he even co – wrote a musical with John Mellencamp. Billed as a “southern Gothic supernatural musical”, “Ghost brothers of Darkland country” opened ran for a month at the “Alliance theater” in Atlanta.

King is 70 now, but hasn’t run out of ideas. In fact, he and his son Owen, just released a co – written book in 2017.

Charitable work and political involvement

King is incredibly wealthy – he writes and sells books at a breathtaking pace. But he doesn’t use his wealth to amass stuff. He and Tabitha own three houses – two in Maine and one in Florida. It’s the house in Maine that is most iconic. Located in Bangor, it’s huge old Victorian surrounded by a wrought iron fence decorated with bats. From the outside, the house is exactly where one would expect Stephen King to live. On the inside, it has an indoor swimming pool and a huge underground library.

The houses are extravagant by everyday standards, but they really the primary way, King prefers to spend money on himself and Tabitha.

His houses are beautiful, but they don’t use all of his money. So, what does he do with it all?

Well, he gives it away, mostly. Or, he invests in projects that support his interests and his community. A music fan, King has purchased radio stations in Maine. A huge baseball fan, he funded the construction of a Little league field in Bangor. The field is known as “Field of screams”, a tip of the hat to the field’s founder.

Together, he and Tabitha run the “Stephen and Tabitha King foundation”. Libraries and colleges, especially the University of Maine and the Bangor public library have benefited from The Kings philanthropy. Maine’s historical societies, fire departments, art organizations and hospitals have also been beneficiaries of the Kings.

Stephen King is a national figure in his own right. For thirty years, he has been affecting the conversation around pop culture. His books sell by the millions and his movies rake in millions of dollars and win Academy Awards. Growing up, he knew he wanted to write, but he never wanted to do it to achieve the wealth and fame he’s now amassed. His reasoning was much simpler and it remains his mantra to this day.

For over three decades, from his home tucked away in the northeast corner of the United States, Stephen King has been able to live out his childhood dream to write for a living. In doing so, he’s brought many of us nightmares – but they’re nightmares the world gladly welcome as we continue to delve into his stories.

 

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The forgotten warrior: the story of Yasuke, African samurai

The history of feudal Japan is full of stories about great warriors and their exploits. However, few have left such a great impression on the people there as the tall and strong African who landed near Kyoto almost 500 years ago. His name is Yasuke, and he was the first man born outside of Japan to become a warrior of the highest class – a samurai.

In the following text, I will tell you about the forgotten warrior: the story of Yasuke, the legendary African samurai

Mysterious origin

In the Middle Ages, the people who traveled the furthest were religious missionaries who spread their faith, and Alessandro Valiano was the most famous Catholic of the time who set foot on Asian soil.

On his ship, there was a man about whom this story is about.

An African of unknown name, who would later become known as Yasuke, had a life worthy of a novel. He, together with Valian, arrived on the coast of Japan in 1579.

“Because they were religious figures, the missionaries could not have an army. However, they could have bodyguards, and that was probably Yasuke’s role in Valian’s entourage,” Thomas Lockley, a professor at the University of Tokyo and co-author of a book on Yasukeu.

Nothing is known for sure about the origin of this African.

There are some claims that he is from Mozambique, and that he belongs to the Yao people. This is often claimed because of his name, which is practically the name of the people (Yao) with the Japanese suffix for the male name (suke).

Other sources claim that South Sudan is the place of its origin, and the third that it is Ethiopia.

Thomas Lockley believes that Yasuke is very likely to have its roots somewhere in Northeast Africa, because almost all Africans in Asia came from there at that time.

They climb on the roofs to see him better

It goes without saying that the people in the port near Kyoto, where the missionaries landed, were fascinated by Yasuke.

Warrior Matsudaira Yatada recorded that Yasuke was 1.88 m tall. If we take into account that rarely any Japanese at that time was taller than 1.6 m, then it is clear why he attracted so much attention.

“People flocked to the streets from all sides to see him. We have records that say that they literally climbed on the roofs in order to get a better view of him, and that because of that, the houses collapsed,” Lockley explained.

He adds that people who would see Yasuke probably thought he was a divine person.

Two days later, Oda Nobunaga, the legendary Japanese daimjo (great feudal lord), the first of the three known as the “unifiers of Japan”, also heard of Yasuke.

Welcome party

Not much is known about Yasuke’s life in the first two years of his arrival in Japan, but it is assumed that he went where Valiano did on his mission of preaching the faith.

The mission in the Land of the Rising Sun has come to an end, so the time has come for the Italian to move on, to India.

However, in 1581, Japan could not leave just like that. Valiani had to go to Kyoto and ask Nobunaga for permission, and the latter asked him to keep Yasuke in his service.

“Nobunaga was amazed by Yasuke. People around him were also amazed, because they had probably never seen a man so tall and strong before, and the records mention that Yasuke was very smart,” says Lockley.

His surprise is perhaps best described by the fact that he thought that Yasuke was not actually black, but that it was some kind of trick.

“He asked Yasuke to take off his clothes and scratch his skin, to check if it was paint on his body. Of course that was not the case. Nobunaga, when he saw that Yasuke was really dark-skinned, invited his sons to he sees, and practically organizes for him what we would call a welcome party today, “Lockley explains.

The samurai and the powerful become friends

Yasuke then enters Nobunaga’s service, although it is not mentioned specifically what rank he had, it is known that he was in the narrowest circle of people he trusted.

He was in charge of carrying the master’s sword, which is one of the highest positions a person can have in feudal Japan.

“Even the one who wears his master’s shoes was very respected, so you can imagine what kind of trust Nobunaga had to have in Yasuke in order to entrust him with a weapon while walking next to him,” Lockley points out.

He got a house, servants and money. Of course, he also got a sword, which means that he was a warrior of a very high class – a samurai.

Nobunaga himself thought of himself as a god and built temples for himself, Lokli points out, adding that he probably thought he would be even stronger when he had another god with him – Yasuke.

The African spoke Japanese quite well, and Nobunaga liked to talk to him.

At first, he “hung out” with Yasuke more out of fun, but over time, they became very close, Lockley believes.

“Nobunaga was not a man who had friends. He would order anyone who bothered him at least a little to be killed. However, Yasuke was probably the closest friend he had,” he points out.

With the master to the very end

Given their closeness, it’s no wonder Yasuke stayed with Nobunaga until the very end.

“The last time Yasuke was recorded in history was the moment of Nobunaga’s death. Nobunaga’s enemy named Akechi Mitsuhide attacked him in an ambush with 13,000 people, while the emperor had only 30 soldiers, including Yasuke,” says Lokli.

In order not to die at the hands of the enemy, on June 21, 1582, Nobunaga committed sepuku, a ritual suicide where he ripped his stomach open.

“As far as is known from the record, Yasuke saved Nobunaga’s head so that it would not fall into Mitsuhida’s hands. This is very important, because if Mitsuhida had gotten into Nobunaga’s head, he could rightly claim that the new ruler of Japan, who defeated the old man, “he points out.

It turned out that things didn’t turn out great for Micuhide either – Nobunaga’s supporters killed him 11 days later.

In a letter from a Jesuit, we have written that Yasuke fought with his son, Oda Nobutada, the day after Nobunaga’s death.

Nobutada was also killed, after which Yasuke returned to the Jesuits, and this is the last thing that is reliably known about the first African samurai.

Yasuke is still alive

Despite the fact that we know almost nothing about him after 1582, the echoes of Yasuke’s fate are still present today, as an inspiration for many artists.

“Lately, the story of Yasuke has been getting more and more attention. Mostly only historians, screenwriters or other artists who dealt with the period in which he lived new about him. A black warrior often appears in films besides Nobunaga, but almost no one knew who it was, except the producers, “Lockley explains.

Yasuke’s origins and significance were also an inspiration to Nicolas Ross, a South African artist whose sculptures were mostly inspired by African heritage.

She presented the sculpture of an African samurai at an exhibition called “No Man’s Land”.

“The shadow of colonialism is still over all of us, so by wanting to discover people from this period who are not so well-known, and who greatly influenced people’s perspectives on race, culture and society in the postcolonial era, I show how we should focus on what it unites us, not what separates us, “Nikola Ross told Euronews Serbia.

South Africa is still a place where people fight the remnants of colonialism, and many in the diaspora are torn between a sense of belonging to a new homeland and the land of their ancestors. Precisely for them, Ross thinks that they are on “No Man’s Land”, and he sees the personification of this metaphor in Yasuke.

“Five centuries after he lived, Yasuke reminds us of the incredible exploits of an African somewhere far away in the colonial world. He lives in a space much larger than official history – it serves as a framework for our national feelings and reminds us of a legacy we so often forget. “, he explains.

In the society in which he lived, Yasuke became the border between the colonial past and the non-colonial future, and the fact that he became a “native in the diaspora” connects him with many today who left her country, adds Nikola Ross.

 

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The life story of Milton Hershey – the chocolate kingdom!

In this interesting text, I will describe the life story of Milton Hershey – the chocolate kingdom!

In the early 1900s, Milton S. Hershey made one of the great American fortunes through dogged persistence and the courage to pursue a dream. Though he was modest and unassuming in appearance, Milton Hershey was a shrewd and determined businessman. He had a genius for timing and an instinctive ability to choose loyal and able people to help him. A great entrepreneur and philanthropist, “he measured success, not in dollars, but in terms of a good product to pass on to the public, and still more in the usefulness of those dollars for the benefit of his fellow men”.

Earlier years

Milton Snavely Hershey was born September 13, 1857, shortly before the American Civil War, on a Derry Township farm located in central Pennsylvania. Like most of the people whom he knew, he was the descendant of people who immigrated to Pennsylvania from Switzerland and Germany in the 1700s. He grew up speaking the “Pennsylvania Dutch” dialect and inherited from these people characteristics such as a propensity for hard work, diligence and thriftiness.

His parents

His father, Henry Hershey, was an inquisitive man who loved to read books. He was never financially successful, however, and moved his family several times during Milton’s childhood as he pursued a variety of business ventures. He tried, among many efforts, seeking his fortune selling equipment during the western Pennsylvania oil boom, developing a trout pond and running a fruit farm and nursery. Milton’s mother, Fanny Snavely Hershey, was a strong-minded and frugal woman who was often frustrated and disappointed by her husband’s failures. As a result, the two drifted apart and Henry Hershey spent long periods away from home, trying his luck in Philadelphia, New York, Chicago and even Colorado.

Both the Hershey and Snavely families were originally Mennonite. Though Milton’s mother was a staunch member of the Reformed Mennonite Church and wore plain clothes and a bonnet throughout her life, formal religion was never a part of Milton Hershey’s life. When he was asked once what his religion was, he is said to have replied, “The Golden Rule.”

Childhood

Milton Hershey had very little formal schooling. He attended at least seven schools as his family moved from their original home in Derry Township to Lancaster County, but his education was sporadic and disjointed. As an adult Milton Hershey was self-conscious regarding his limited formal education. Although he became successful without the benefit of a good education, he made many provisions to provide the children of his community with quality schools and opportunities for learning.

As a young adult at first it seemed that Milton Hershey had no more talent for business than his father. He failed twice before he finally found success making caramel candy. When he was almost 14 years old, Milton’s father apprenticed him to the editor of a small, German-language newspaper in Gap, Pennsylvania. Milton was clumsy, though, and hated the work. He soon got himself fired. Next, his mother found him an apprenticeship with Joseph Royer, a candy and ice cream maker on King Street in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. It was here that he learned the basics of candy making.

Early Confectionery Ventures

Milton was ambitious, and in 1876, after training and working with Royer for four years, made plans to move to Philadelphia where the Centennial Exposition, the United States’ first World’s Fair, was taking place. Hoping to cash in on the money that people would bring to the Centennial, Hershey started a confectionery business. His mother’s family helped by subsidizing the business at first. His mother and his Aunt Martha (Mattie) came to Philadelphia to help him. But though they all worked terribly hard, Milton was never able to generate enough cash flow to make the business a success. After six years of hard work, Milton Hershey’s first business venture went bankrupt in 1882.

Hershey was persistent. His father had traveled to Colorado and wrote encouraging letters about the opportunities waiting for astute entrepreneurs. In 1882 Milton Hershey followed his father’s advice and went to seek his fortune in Denver. Unfortunately, the city of Denver had just entered a three-year depression which followed a slackening in ore production. Milton Hershey didn’t believe he could start a successful candy business without financial help. So instead of starting a new business Hershey found work with a local confectioner. Working for this confectioner, Milton learned an important process for making candy that held the key to his future success. The Denver confectioner taught Hershey how to make caramels with fresh milk. Armed with this new formula he soon left Denver to seek out opportunities in Chicago and New Orleans. Finding nothing he was drawn to New York City in 1883. There he started a second business. While this venture enjoyed some initial success, it also was plagued with cash flow problems and failed by 1886.

Lancaster Caramel Company

Discouraged but not defeated, he returned to Lancaster but did not even have the money to have his possessions shipped to him. When he walked out to his uncle’s farm, he found himself shunned by most of his relatives who viewed him as an irresponsible drifter.

This time, though, fortune finally smiled on Milton Hershey. William Henry Lebkicher, who had worked for Hershey in 1880 at the Philadelphia shop, stored his things and helped him pay the shipping charges, becoming the first in a long line of men who were devoted to Milton Hershey and on whom he depended. Aunt Mattie and his mother began once again to help him with production and Milton started manufacturing Hershey’s “Crystal A” caramels, a “melt in your mouth” candy made with fresh milk.

A large order from a British candy importer led Hershey to ask the Lancaster National Bank for a loan to finance the purchase of much-needed raw ingredients. The bank’s cashier was so impressed by Hershey that he lent him the money, backing the loan with his own signature. When Milton Hershey received payment for the candy order he was so excited that he ran down the street to the bank with his apron still on. From that time on, the Lancaster Caramel Company was extremely successful, and by 1894 Milton Hershey was considered one of Lancaster’s most substantial citizens.

The success of his caramel business enabled Hershey, for the first time in his life, to spend money for his own pleasure. While he was never ostentatious, he clearly had a longing and a taste for beauty and elegance. One of the first things he did was purchase a spacious home at 222 South Queen Street, Lancaster, in 1891. He remodeled the house, taking great interest in its furnishings and filling it with exotic birds, plants and mementos of his travels. Milton Hershey’s love of gardens, which was to be so evident in the town of Hershey, was clear from the start as he closely supervised the landscaping of the grounds.

As was fashionable among other well-to-do Americans of the time, Milton Hershey began to travel to such places as Mexico, Europe, England, and Egypt. Ever curious and always picking up ideas from what he saw, he visited museums, shops, and tourist attractions, walked the streets, watched the people, and is said to have kissed the Blarney Stone and gambled in Monte Carlo.

In 1898, Milton Hershey, now forty years old, astounded everyone by marrying Catherine “Kitty” Sweeney, a beautiful Irish-American Catholic girl from Jamestown, New York. She brought gaiety, wit, and warmth into his life. By all reports their life together was very happy.

The Hersheys lived first in Lancaster, but when ground was broken for the new chocolate factory in 1903, they planned to build a house there. Their home, High Point, was built on a rise overlooking the factory. Finished in 1908, its furnishings – Oriental rugs, lamps, plants and stuffed chairs – reflected the styles of the time as well as the Hersheys’ enjoyment of the many pieces they had acquired during their travels. In the early years at High Point the Hersheys entertained friends often, and also traveled extensively. Sadly, Mrs. Hershey was struck by a debilitating disease and died prematurely in 1915.

Hershey Chocolate Company

Caramels gave Milton Hershey his first million, but chocolate gave him his real fortune. His vision for the potential of chocolate was shaped by a visit to the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, where he became fascinated by an exhibit of German chocolate-making machinery. At the end of the Columbian Exposition, Hershey bought two pieces of the equipment and had it installed in a wing of the Lancaster Caramel factory. He also purchased additional equipment through the company’s New York office, also having it delivered to Lancaster. His commitment to developing a chocolate business was confirmed when the Hershey Chocolate Company was established as a subsidiary of the Lancaster Caramel Company in February 1894. Within a year Hershey was producing his own chocolate, as well as cocoa and baking chocolate. His confectionery line would soon include over 100 varieties of vanilla sweet chocolate novelties (known today as semi-sweet or dark chocolate).

By the late 1890s, Hershey was convinced that his future lay in producing chocolate rather than caramels. In 1900, he sold his Lancaster Caramel Company to competitors for $1 million to devote all his energies to his quickly expanding chocolate business.

His search for the perfect site to build a complete chocolate factory led Milton Hershey back to his birthplace in Derry Township, Pennsylvania. He purchased The Homestead, the farm where he had been born, in 1897. The Homestead served as the site for Hershey’s milk condensing experiments, a necessary first step in developing a formula for milk chocolate. Beginning in 1898 Hershey and a few chosen employees worked long hours side by side, and into the night, until just the right blend of ingredients was found for milk chocolate. As one of these men recalled later, “Nobody told Mr. Hershey how to make milk chocolate. He just found out the hard way.” Personal involvement in the work at hand was typical of Milton Hershey.

While experiments for a formula for milk chocolate would continue for several years, Hershey’s Milk Chocolate was first introduced in late 1900. The product enjoyed immediate success. By 1902 it was obvious that a new, larger factory was needed to produce milk chocolate. After inspecting possible sites for his new chocolate factory in New York, New Jersey and Maryland, Hershey was soon convinced that the central Pennsylvania countryside would provide everything he needed for a factory: a plentiful water supply, access to rail lines, fresh milk and industrious workers.

When his wife heard that Hershey intended to build in Derry Township, she told him he ought to have his head examined. Most of his associates agreed with her because they felt the site was too remote. However, Hershey’s mind was firmly made up. Beginning in late 1902, Hershey quietly began buying land through an agent. Ground breaking took place on March 2, 1903, and by summer 1905 the new factory was completed.

The Hershey Chocolate Factory was designed to produce milk chocolate using mass production techniques. Much of the specialized machinery was either developed or adapted by factory employees. When the Hershey Chocolate Company was first established, Milton Hershey produced many varieties of sweet chocolate candies. When he made the brilliant business decision to concentrate on Hershey’s milk chocolate, and a few other basic chocolate products such as cocoa and chocolate coatings, his name became the nationwide symbol for quality milk chocolate in a phenomenally short time.

Hershey had other qualities as well, which made him a good businessman. He was imaginative. He had the skill of choosing able assistants and of keeping their devotion. He had a broad grasp of markets and of their possibilities and, he was daring. Once he had made a decision, he put his entire force behind it, whether it was making chocolate, producing his own sugar in Cuba or, wrongly as it turned out, trying to stabilize the price of sugar futures. On the whole, he was respected for his honesty, for driving hard bargains and for selling a first-class product.

Milton Hershey was a doer, not a philosopher. He rarely wrote and seldom talked about his beliefs. Nevertheless, he obviously thought a lot about such matters as success and the value and purposes of money. He believed wealth should be used for the benefit of others and practiced what he preached. He also understood that doing good works was also good for business. That practical approach did not lessen the depth or scope of his interest in other people’s welfare.

Milton Hershey used his chocolate fortune to primarily benefit two projects: the town of Hershey and his Hershey Industrial School for orphan boys. Although some questioned the wisdom of his decisions, no one ever questioned his sincerity.

Planning the Model Town

Plans for building the town went hand in hand with building the factory. Since Hershey started his company in the middle of farmland, not in a town, it was clear from the start that he would have to provide a place for at least some of his workers, as well as his managerial staff, to live.

With the help of Henry “Harry” N. Herr, a Lancaster engineer, plans were drawn for a pleasant tree-lined community which provided for all the needs of its residents. A bank, hotel, public school, churches, parks, golf courses and a zoo followed each other in rapid succession. At the onset of planning for the town, Milton Hershey developed a trolley system so that employees would not be forced to live in Hershey and had a way to get to work from nearby towns.

Some people were suspicious of Hershey’s motives in founding the town, and feared that he would take advantage of people who lived there, as had happened in other “company towns.” Workers, for example, vetoed Hershey’s idea of forming a cooperative store because they thought they would somehow be cheated. But though Milton Hershey could certainly be autocratic and was criticized for deciding what was important, often without consulting the town’s residents, his concern for his workers’ welfare was genuine.

Like other industrialists who built model towns for their workers, Milton Hershey took great pride in his community. As the town population grew, Milton Hershey provided for new schools, a new bank building and expanded services such as the trolley system and telephone service. The community remained an enduring passion for Milton Hershey throughout his life. The coming of the Depression beginning in 1929 threatened to bring economic disaster to his community. Hershey responded with his own unique form of benevolent paternalism. As the Depression deepened, Milton Hershey undertook a major construction program, which became known as the Great Building Campaign. During the 1930s, more than 600 men found work building many structures that later became major tourist attractions. Hotel Hershey, Hershey Community Theater, the Community Building, the Hershey Industrial Junior-Senior High School (now Catherine Hall), Hershey Sports Arena, the Stadium and several other smaller projects transformed the community into a major tourist destination.

While it has often been said that no workers lost their jobs during the Depression, everyone was affected. In 1933 the passage of the NRA (National Recovery Act) mandated that wages and hours be regulated. Limiting hours resulted in the factory being able to hire additional employees, but individual paychecks shrank to a critical point. This financial hardship was a contributing factor to the factory’s 1937 sit-down strike.

Milton Hershey School

Saddened because they had no children of their own, and anxious to put their growing fortune to good use, Milton and Catherine Hershey founded the Hershey Industrial School (now Milton Hershey School) for orphaned boys in 1909.

The School’s Deed of Trust stipulated that: “All orphans admitted to the School shall be fed with plain, wholesome food; plainly, neatly, and comfortable clothed, without distinctive dress; and fitly lodged. Due regard shall be paid to their health; their physical training shall be attended to, and they shall have suitable and proper exercise and recreation. They shall be instructed in the several branches of a sound education. . . The main object in view is to train young men to useful trades and occupations, so that they can earn their own livelihood.”

Inspiring the establishment of the school was Milton Hershey’s own childhood memories of hard times and his hope that he could spare some children the pains he had experienced. In 1918, following his wife’s death in 1915, Milton Hershey gifted the School’s trust fund with his entire fortune, his ownership of the Hershey Chocolate Company, then valued at $60 million. Characteristically, the gift was not made public until 1923.

His Deeds are His Monument

When Milton Hershey died on October 13, 1945, at 88 years of age, a chocolate bar had carried his name around the world and made him a legend. Poor boy turned millionaire, he was loved and admired as well as envied and sometimes misunderstood.

Hershey had the good fortune to develop the chocolate industry in the right place at the right time. His personal convictions about the obligations of wealth and about the quality of life in the community he founded have made that community his living memorial.

 

 

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Freddie Fidgers – the return of the written off!

THIS MILLIONAIRE WAS LEFT AT THE CONTAINER AS A BABY AND HIS STORY IS FOR THE FILM: Due to his father’s illness, he invented the first smart device!

Freddie Fidgers got his first computer when he was only nine years old. Although the computer was old and did not work, it was love at first sight that led him to become an inventor in the field of technology, an entrepreneur and finally a millionaire.

Such a future could not have been foreseen by anyone who knew how difficult it was to start his journey in this world.

In the following text, I will describe the story I called: “Freddie Fidgers – the return of the written off”!

“Don’t let your circumstances define who you are”!

This is just one piece of advice that entrepreneur Freddie Fidgers wants to pass on to others.

When he was eight, he asked Father Nathan about the circumstances of his birth and the answer was unforgettable.

“He said, ‘Listen, I’m going to tell you right now, Fred. Your biological mother, she dumped you, and Betty Me, we didn’t want to send you into foster care, and we adopted you, so you’re my son”.

Freddie was found as a newborn next to a container (large garbage container) in rural Florida.

“When he told me that, I said, ‘Okay, I’m rubbish,” and I felt unwanted. But he grabbed me by the shoulder and said, ‘Listen, don’t ever touch that.”

Nathan Fidgers was a maintenance worker, and Betty Metti was Mae Figgers, a farm worker. They lived in Quincy, a rural community of about 8,000 people in North Florida, and were in their fifties when they found Freddie, in 1989.

They raised several children before him, but they decided to take Freddie when he was two days old and adopt him as their child. Freddie says they gave him all the love he could ever want, but the other kids in Quincy knew they were really brutal.

“The kids bullied me and called me Dumpster, the guy from the dumpster, telling me I was dirty and that no one wanted me,” he says.

“I remember that when I got off the school bus, other children were stalking me in the back, grabbing me and throwing me in a container and laughing at me.”

It even got to the point that the father had to wait for him after getting off the bus and drove him home, but the children also mocked Nathan. As for Freddie, Knight and Betty Me were his heroes and great role models.

“I watched my father always help people, stopping by the roadside helping strangers, feeding the homeless. He was an amazing man, they took me and raised me and that’s exactly the kind of man I want to be,” says Freddie.

A turning point

On the weekends, Freddie and Nathan would drive to the “diving container” – those buckets where you can find everything useful that other people threw. Freddie paid special attention to the possibly discarded computer.

“An old saying goes that it’s one man’s trash, another man’s treasure,” says Freddy, “and I’ve always been fascinated by computers. I’ve always wanted a Gateway computer, but at the time we couldn’t afford it”.

Finally, one day when Freddy was nine years old, they went to a second-hand shop called Goodville, where they came across a broken Macintosh computer.

“We talked to the salesman and in the end he said, ‘Hey, I’ll give it to you for $24″. We took the computer home, and I was overjoyed”, Freddie recalls.

He had already messed around a lot with a collection of radios, alarm clocks, or VCRs that Nathan had assembled, but the rotten Mac had now become the focus of his attention.

“When I brought it home and saw it couldn’t turn on, I decided to disassemble it. As I looked inside, I saw broken capacitors. I had soldering guns, radios and alarm clocks, so I took out the parts and soldered them to the board”, he remembers.

After about fifty attempts, the computer finally turned on! At that moment, he knew he wanted to spend his life working with technology.

“That computer removed all the pain of violence in my life”, he says.

Whenever he was attacked at school, he says he always thought, “I can’t wait to go home and play with the computer!”

“Playing” with computers!

He was 12 years old when others noticed his skills. At the after-school club, while the other children played on the playground, Freddy repaired broken computers in the school’s computer lab.

“If the hard drive was damaged, I would replace it. If it needed more memory, I would add more RAM. If it needed power, I would fix it”, he says.

The director of the extracurricular program was the mayor of Quincy, and when he saw that he was bringing broken computers back to life, he asked him to come to the town hall with his parents.

“When we came to the town hall, he showed me all those computers stacked in the back… Oh God, maybe there were a hundred of them there and he said they should be fixed,” he recalls.

Since then, Freddy has spent time after school repairing this pile of computers, for $12 an hour.

“It wasn’t really about money,” he says. “I had the opportunity to do something I loved and it was so much fun.”

A couple of years later, the possibility of programming appeared. Quincy needed a system to check the city’s water pressure meters, and the company set aside $600,000 to develop a computer program.

Freddie remembers the city manager saying, “Hey, Freddie is a computer wizard! He could probably help with this”.

“Sir, listen, I told him, if you give me a chance, I could do the same program. So he gave me that opportunity and I made that program exactly according to the specifications they needed. I wasn’t paid $600,000, oo, I already received a regular salary check and went home”.

Starting your own business

It was a turning point in Freddie’s life. He was only 15 years old, but now he has decided to leave school and start his own computer business – to the great misfortune of his parents.

“They believed in education, work, retirement, and I wanted to break that chain, I wanted to do something different,” he says.

His father’s health problems

Freddie’s job made it possible to make ends meet. But a few years later, Nathan’s Alzheimer’s disease began to develop rapidly.

One of the disturbing symptoms was that he woke up at night and repeated things he had seen on television earlier in the evening. This led to what Freddie calls the most traumatic thing that ever happened to him.

“It was about two o’clock one morning, and my father loved the old western“ Smell of Gunpowder (Gunsmoke), ”he walked into my bedroom and thought he was the main character, Matt Dillon. He told me,‘ I’m going to have to get out of town “. ”

Freddie says it was thick, but he pulled a gun from his father’s hand, put it back on the bed, and tucked it away. However, when he woke up in the morning, Nathan was not there!

This was another symptom of Alzheimer’s disease and it has happened before. Sometimes he would forget to dress completely before he wandered off, even though he always wore shoes.

This prompted Freddie’s first profitable invention.

“So I took my father’s shoes, cut the sole of the shoe, made a tile and put it inside the shoe with a 90 megahertz speaker, a microphone and a wide area network card,” says Freddy.

“I integrated it with my laptop – it was before Apple Maps or Google Maps – and I connected it through TomTom, the Garmin platform.

My father could actually wander off, and I could push a button on my laptop and say ‘Hey Dad, where are you?” I would address him through the speaker on his shoe, and he would say, “Fred, I don’t know where I am!”

Freddy could then find his whereabouts via a GPS tracker and go get him. He says he had to apply it about eight times.

When Nathan’s condition worsened, some family members wanted to put him in a nursing home, but Freddie refused. Instead, he began taking his father with him to business meetings.

“He didn’t leave me, so I won’t leave him,” Freddy said.

When he would go to see potential clients, he would leave Nathan’s father in the back seat of the car with the air conditioning, radio and steering wheel lock on.

“I was in a meeting once and I looked out the window and… oh my God, my father put the back window down and went outside,” Freddy says.

“So I started to panic and I was uncomfortable, but I said I had to go. Freddie ran out of the meeting and with relief found his father sitting in a nearby parking lot.

Freddie was 24 when Nathan died, at the age of 81, in January 2014.

“It honestly broke me”, says Freddy, “because all I ever wanted was to make my father happy”,

Freddie sold his “shoe finder” invention for $2.2 million and waited for the funds to be released. Nathan had always wanted to own a 1993 Ford pickup truck and a fishing boat, but now that Freddie could afford to buy them, it was too late.

“It really opened my eyes and taught me that money is nothing but a tool and I will do everything in my power to try to make the world a better place before I leave it”, says Freddy.

“Knowing my father, he was not a rich man at all, but he influenced the lives of many people and I want to do good and help everyone I can.”

Smart device

By this stage, Freddie had invented another smart device, also inspired by personal experience – going to George when he was eight and going to visit his mother’s uncle.

“When we got to his house, my mother and father knocked on the front door and no one answered. My father told me to go up through the window and open the front door.

Freddy went inside, unlocked the door, saw a cousin sitting on a chair by the fireplace and thought everything was fine.

“My father approached him, called my mother and said,‘ Betty he’s dead! ’Freddie’s cousin fell into a diabetic coma and died.

“When you think of someone with diabetes, when he checks his blood sugar, he has to write it down and take a diary, and in the case of my mother’s uncle, even if he wrote it, for the rural area where he lived, no one kept it. accounts, ”says Freddie.

So at the age of 22, Freddy made a smart glucometer that currently shares the blood sugar level of the person with the closest relative and adds the readings to their electronic health card, which the doctor can review. If a person’s blood sugar level is abnormal, he sends a warning with amber.

But Freddie has also started work on a larger project. He was aware that many parts of rural America did not have access to a 2G or 3G network, and in Quincy people were still using dial-up internet at the time, with its distinctive symphony of crackling white noise and high-pitched bells. He wanted to introduce the latest communications in these rural areas and in 2008 he submitted the first of many applications for permission from the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) to start his own telecommunications’ company.

“I had to submit a petition to show that larger telecom operators will not enter and invest their infrastructure in a rural area with a population of less than 1,000 people,” he says.

It was not easy. In fact, he says, it took 394 attempts and it cost him huge sums of money. But in 2011, at the age of 25, Freddie became the youngest telecommunications’ operator in the United States. According to NBC News, Fidgers Communication remains the only black-owned telecommunications’ company in the country.

At first, Freddy did most of the work himself – from laying concrete for his first cell phone tower, to installing fiber optic cables.

He began providing services in rural areas of North Florida and South Georgia, not far from Quincy, and the company grew steadily. In 2014, Freddie launched a smartphone, the Figgers F1, with a device that detects movement and switches to “safe mode” above 10 mph, preventing people from sending messages while driving. The Figgers F3, which went on sale in 2019, contains a chip designed to enable wireless charging whenever the phone is five meters away from the “super basic charger” – a device that is waiting for FCC approval.

Freddie’s mother (83) has also now started showing symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. She says that she is very proud of what he has achieved and realizes that the glucometer, which could have saved her uncle’s life, is “something special”.

Freddy married Natley Fidgers, a lawyer, in 2015 and they have a girl. Like his business, he runs a foundation that invests in education and health projects and helps children and families at a disadvantage. Recent programs include the donation of bicycles to foster children and programs for people on the front lines of the corona virus pandemic.

Freddie says the most important piece of advice he would give his little girl about life would be to “never give up, no matter how cold the world seems” and try to positively impact the life of every person you meet. That is the message that Freddie’s father and follower number one, Nathan, would completely agree with.


I hope you liked Freddie Freddie’s biography?

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Isaac Newton – a man who made a revolution in science

Sir Isaac Newton, a famous scientist, creator of famous laws, the foundation of classical mechanics.

During his schooling, he lived with a pharmacist, since when he learned the basics of chemistry and which aroused his desire to deal with chemical processes. As a boy, he was quiet and withdrawn, without many friends. He was not one of the better students at school and the teachers did not consider him overly successful (which some consider to be a consequence of dyslexia) but he later became a top student. He made models of windmills, clocks and the wall of his room was filled with drawings, sundials, circles, geometric bodies, birds… There is a story that as a teenager he could determine the exact time based on the position of the shadow. His problem of predicting the flight path of the ball and the way it bounces against the walls was also noted, which remained an enigma for scientists and was only recently solved by a teenager after 350 years.

His sentence was remembered: “If I saw farther than most people, it was because I was standing on the shoulders of giants”.

This is the life story of Isaac Newton, a man who made a revolution in science!

Early life

On January 4, 1643, Isaac Newton was born in the hamlet of Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England (using the “old” Julien calendar, Newton’s birth date is sometimes displayed as December 25, 1642). He was the only son of a prosperous local farmer, also named Isaac Newton, who died three months before he was born. A premature baby born tiny and weak, Newton was not expected to survive. When he was 3 years old, his mother, Hannah Ayscough Newton, remarried a well-to-do minister, Barnabas Smith, and went to live with him, leaving young Newton with his maternal grandmother. The experience left an indelible imprint on Newton, later manifesting itself as an acute sense of insecurity. He anxiously obsessed over his published work, defending its merits with irrational behavior.

At age 12, Newton was reunited with his mother after her second husband died. She brought along her three small children from her second marriage. Newton had been enrolled at the King’s School in Grantham, a town in Lincolnshire, where he lodged with a local apothecary and was introduced to the fascinating world of chemistry. His mother pulled him out of school, for her plan was to make him a farmer and have him tend the farm. Newton failed miserably, as he found farming monotonous.

He soon was sent back to King’s School to finish his basic education. Perhaps sensing the young man’s innate intellectual abilities, his uncle, a graduate of the University of Cambridge’s Trinity College, persuaded Newton’s mother to have him enter the university. Newton enrolled in a program similar to a work-study in 1661, and subsequently waited on tables and took care of wealthier students’ rooms.

When Newton arrived at Cambridge, the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century was already in full force. The heliocentric view of the universe—theorized by astronomers Nicolaus Copernicus and Johannes Kepler, and later refined by Galileo—was well-known in most European academic circles. Philosopher René Descartes had begun to formulate a new concept of nature as an intricate, impersonal and inert machine. Yet, like most universities in Europe, Cambridge was steeped in Aristotelian philosophy and a view of nature resting on a geocentric view of the universe, dealing with nature in qualitative rather than quantitative terms.

During his first three years at Cambridge, Newton was taught the standard curriculum but was fascinated with the more advanced science. All his spare time was spent reading from the modern philosophers. The result was a less-than-stellar performance, but one that is understandable, given his dual course of study. It was during this time that Newton kept a second set of notes, entitled “Questions Quaedam Philosophicae” (“Certain Philosophical Questions”). The “Questions” reveal that Newton had discovered the new concept of nature that provided the framework for the Scientific Revolution.

Though Newton graduated with no honors or distinctions, his efforts won him the title of scholar and four years of financial support for future education. Unfortunately, in 1665, the Great Plague that was ravaging Europe had come to Cambridge, forcing the university to close. Newton returned home to pursue his private study. It was during this 18-month hiatus that he conceived the method of infinitesimal calculus, set foundations for his theory of light and color, and gained significant insight into the laws of planetary motion—insights that eventually led to the publication of his Principia in 1687. Legend has it that, at this time, Newton experienced his famous inspiration of gravity with the falling apple.

When the threat of plague subsided in 1667, Newton returned to Cambridge and was elected a minor fellow at Trinity College, as he was still not considered a standout scholar. However, in the ensuing years, his fortune improved. Newton received his Master of Arts degree in 1669, before he was 27. During this time, he came across Nicholas Mercator’s published book on methods for dealing with infinite series. Newton quickly wrote a treatise, De Analysis, expounding his own wider-ranging results. He shared this with friend and mentor Isaac Barrow, but didn’t include his name as author.

In June 1669, Barrow shared the unaccredited manuscript with British mathematician John Collins. In August 1669, Barrow identified its author to Collins as “Mr. Newton … very young … but of an extraordinary genius and proficiency in these things.” Newton’s work was brought to the attention of the mathematics community for the first time. Shortly afterward, Barrow resigned his Lucasian professorship at Cambridge, and Newton assumed the chair.

Professional life

As a professor, Newton was exempted from tutoring but required to deliver an annual course of lectures. He chose to deliver his work on optics as his initial topic. Part of Newton’s study of optics was aided with the use of a reflecting telescope that he designed and constructed in 1668—his first major public scientific achievement. This invention helped prove his theory of light and color. The Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope in 1671, and the organization’s interest encouraged Newton to publish his notes on light, optics and color in 1672; these notes were later published as part of Newton’s Opticks: Or, A treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections and Colours of Light.

However, not everyone at the Royal Academy was enthusiastic about Newton’s discoveries in optics. Among the dissenters was Robert Hooke, one of the original members of the Royal Academy and a scientist who was accomplished in a number of areas, including mechanics and optics. In his paper, Newton theorized that white light was a composite of all colors of the spectrum, and that light was composed of particles. Hooke believed that light was composed of waves. Hooke quickly condemned Newton’s paper in condescending terms, and attacked Newton’s methodology and conclusions.

Hooke was not the only one to question Newton’s work in optics. Renowned Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens and a number of French Jesuits also raised objections. But because of Hooke’s association with the Royal Society and his own work in optics, his criticism stung Newton the worst. Unable to handle the critique, he went into a rage—a reaction to criticism that was to continue throughout his life.

Newton denied Hooke’s charge that his theories had any shortcomings, and argued the importance of his discoveries to all of the science. In the ensuing months, the exchange between the two men grew more acrimonious, and soon Newton threatened to quit the society altogether. He remained only when several other members assured him that the Fellows held him in high esteem.

However, the rivalry between Newton and Hooke would continue for several years thereafter. Then, in 1678, Newton suffered a complete nervous breakdown and the correspondence abruptly ended. The death of his mother the following year caused him to become even more isolated, and for six years he withdrew from intellectual exchange except when others initiated correspondence, which he always kept short.

During his hiatus from public life, Newton returned to his study of gravitation and its effects on the orbits of planets. Ironically, the impetus that put Newton on the right direction in this study came from Robert Hooke. In a 1679 letter of general correspondence to Royal Society members for contributions, Hooke wrote to Newton and brought up the question of planetary motion, suggesting that a formula involving the inverse squares might explain the attraction between planets and the shape of their orbits.

Subsequent exchanges transpired before Newton quickly broke off the correspondence once again. But Hooke’s idea was soon incorporated into Newton’s work on planetary motion, and from his notes it appears he had quickly drawn his own conclusions by 1680, though he kept his discoveries to himself.

In early 1684, in a conversation with fellow Royal Society members Christopher Wren and Edmond Halley, Hooke made his case on the proof for planetary motion. Both Wren and Halley thought he was on to something, but pointed out that a mathematical demonstration was needed. In August 1684, Halley traveled to Cambridge to visit with Newton, who was coming out of his seclusion. Halley idly asked him what shape the orbit of a planet would take if its attraction to the sun followed the inverse square of the distance between them (Hooke’s theory).

Newton knew the answer, due to his concentrated work for the past six years, and replied, “An ellipse”. Newton claimed to have solved the problem some 18 years prior, during his hiatus from Cambridge and the plague, but he was unable to find his notes. Halley persuaded him to work out the problem mathematically and offered to pay all costs so that the ideas might be published.

Publishing “Principia”

In 1687, after 18 months of intense and effectively nonstop work, Newton published Philosophiae Naturalist Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). Said to be the single most influential book on physics and possibly all of the science, it is most often known as Principia and contains information on nearly all of the essential concepts of physics, except energy.

The work offers an exact quantitative description of bodies in motion in three basic laws: 1) A stationary body will stay stationary unless an external force is applied to it; 2) Force is equal to mass times acceleration, and a change in motion is proportional to the force applied; and 3) For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. These three laws helped explain not only elliptical planetary orbits but nearly every other motion in the universe: how the planets are kept in orbit by the pull of the sun’s gravity; how the moon revolves around Earth and the moons of Jupiter revolve around it; and how comets revolve in elliptical orbits around the sun.

The laws also allowed Newton to calculate the mass of each planet, calculate the flattening of the Earth at the poles and the bulge at the equator, and how the gravitational pull of the sun and moon create the Earth’s tides. In Newton’s account, gravity kept the universe balanced, made it work, and brought heaven and earth together in one great equation.

Upon the publication of the first edition of Principia, Robert Hooke immediately accused Newton of plagiarism, claiming that he had discovered the theory of inverse squares and that Newton had stolen his work. The charge was unfounded, as most scientists knew, for Hooke had only theorized on the idea and had never brought it to any level of proof. However, Newton was furious and strongly defended his discoveries.

He withdrew all references to Hooke in his notes and threatened to withdraw from publishing the subsequent edition of Principia altogether. Halley, who had invested much of himself in Newton’s work, tried to make peace between the two men. While Newton begrudgingly agreed to insert a joint acknowledgment of Hooke’s work (shared with Wren and Halley) in his discussion of the law of inverse squares, it did nothing to placate Hooke.

As the years went on, Hooke’s life began to unravel. His beloved niece and companion died the same year that Principia was published, in 1687. As Newton’s reputation and fame grew, Hooke’s declined, causing him to become even more bitter and loathsome toward his rival. To the bitter end, Hooke took every opportunity he could to offend Newton. Knowing that his rival would soon be elected president of the Royal Society, Hooke refused to retire until the year of his death, in 1703.

International prominence

Principia immediately raised Newton to international prominence, and he thereafter became more involved in public affairs. Consciously or unconsciously, he was ready for a new direction in life. He no longer found contentment in his position at Cambridge and he was becoming more involved in other issues. He helped lead the resistance to King James II’s attempts to reinstitute Catholic teaching at Cambridge, and in 1689 he was elected to represent Cambridge in Parliament.

While in London, Newton acquainted himself with a broader group of intellectuals and became acquainted with political philosopher John Locke. Though many of the scientists on the continent continued to teach the mechanical world according to Aristotle, a young generation of British scientists became captivated with Newton’s new view of the physical world and recognized him as their leader. One of these admirers was Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, a Swiss mathematician whom Newton befriended while in London.

However, within a few years, Newton fell into another nervous breakdown in 1693. The cause is open to speculation: his disappointment over not being appointed to a higher position by England’s new monarchs, William III and Mary II, or the subsequent loss of his friendship with Duillier; exhaustion from being overworked; or perhaps chronic mercury poisoning after decades of alchemical research. It’s difficult to know the exact cause, but evidence suggests that letters written by Newton to several of his London acquaintances and friends, including Duillier, seemed deranged and paranoiac, and accused them of betrayal and conspiracy.

Oddly enough, Newton recovered quickly, wrote letters of apology to friends, and was back to work within a few months. He emerged with all his intellectual facilities intact, but seemed to have lost interest in scientific problems and now favored pursuing prophecy and scripture and the study of alchemy. While some might see this as work beneath the man who had revolutionized science, it might be more properly attributed to Newton responding to the issues of the time in turbulent 17th century Britain. Many intellectuals were grappling with the meaning of many different subjects, not least of which were religion, politics and the very purpose of life. Modern science was still so new that no one knew for sure how it measured up against older philosophies.

In 1696, Newton was able to attain the governmental position he had long sought: warden of the Mint; after acquiring this new title, he permanently moved to London and lived with his niece, Catherine Barton. She was the mistress of Lord Halifax, a high-ranking government official who was instrumental in having Newton promoted, in 1699, to master of the Mint—a position that he would hold until his death. Not wanting it to be considered a mere honorary position, Newton approached the job in earnest, reforming the currency and severely punishing counterfeiters. As master of the Mint, Newton moved the British currency, the pound sterling, from the silver to the gold standard.

In 1703, Newton was elected president of the Royal Society upon Robert Hooke’s death. In 1705, he was knighted by Queen Anne of England. By this point in his life, Newton’s career in science and discovery had given way to a career of political power and influence.

Newton never seemed to understand the notion of science as a cooperative venture, and his ambition and fierce defense of his own discoveries continued to lead him from one conflict to another with other scientists. By most accounts, Newton’s tenure at the society was tyrannical and autocratic; he was able to control the lives and careers of younger scientists with absolute power.

In 1705, in a controversy that had been brewing for several years, German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz publicly accused Newton of plagiarizing his research, claiming he had discovered infinitesimal calculus several years before the publication of Principia. In 1712, the Royal Society appointed a committee to investigate the matter. Of course, since Newton was president of the society, he was able to appoint the committee’s members and oversee its investigation. Not surprisingly, the committee concluded Newton’s priority over the discovery.

That same year, in another of Newton’s more flagrant episodes of tyranny, he published without permission the notes of astronomer John Flamsteed. It seems the astronomer had collected a massive body of data from his years at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England. Newton had requested a large volume of Flamsteed’s notes for his revisions to Principia. Annoyed when Flamsteed wouldn’t provide him with more information as quickly as he wanted it, Newton used his influence as president of the Royal Society to be named the chairman of the body of “visitors” responsible for the Royal Observatory.

He then tried to force the immediate publication of Flamsteed’s catalogue of the stars, as well as all of Flamsteed’s notes, edited and unedited. To add insult to injury, Newton arranged for Flamsteed’s mortal enemy, Edmund Halley, to prepare the notes for press. Flamsteed was finally able to get a court order forcing Newton to cease his plans for publication and return the notes—one of the few times that Newton was bested by one of his rivals.

Final years

Toward the end of this life, Newton lived at Cranbury Park, near Winchester, England, with his niece, Catherine (Barton) Conduitt, and her husband, John Conduitt. By this time, Newton had become one of the most famous men in Europe. His scientific discoveries were unchallenged. He also had become wealthy, investing his sizable income wisely and bestowing sizable gifts to charity. Despite his fame, Newton’s life was far from perfect: He never married or made many friends, and in his later years, a combination of pride, insecurity and side trips on peculiar scientific inquiries led even some of his few friends to worry about his mental stability.

By the time he reached 80 years of age, Newton was experiencing digestion problems, and had to drastically change his diet and mobility. Then, in March 1727, Newton experienced severe pain in his abdomen and blacked out, never to regain consciousness. He died the next day, on March 31, 1727, at the age of 84.

Isaac Newton’s fame grew even more after his death, as many of his contemporaries proclaimed him the greatest genius who ever lived. Maybe a slight exaggeration, but his discoveries had a large impact on Western thought, leading to comparisons to the likes of Plato, Aristotle and Galileo.

Although his discoveries were among many made during the Scientific Revolution, Isaac Newton’s universal principles of gravity found no parallels in science at the time. Of course, Newton was proven wrong on some of his key assumptions. In the 20th century, Albert Einstein would overturn Newton’s concept of the universe, stating that space, distance and motion were not absolute but relative, and that the universe was more fantastic than Newton had ever conceived.

Newton might not have been surprised: In his later life, when asked for an assessment of his achievements, he replied, “I do not know what I may appear to the world; but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself now and then in finding a smoother pebble or prettier shell than ordinary, while the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me”.

 

 

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The life story of Alexander Graham Bell

Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847–August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born American inventor, scientist, and engineer best known for inventing the first practical telephone in 1876, founding the Bell Telephone Company in 1877, and a refinement of Thomas Edison’s phonograph in 1886.

He found the phone looking for a way to help the deaf. His mother lost her hearing when he was only twelve years old and he himself had a problem with dyslexia. That greatly affected his problems at school.

In addition to the telephone, Bell worked on numerous other inventions, including a metal detector, airplanes, and hydrofoils—or “flying” boats.

In the following text, I will describe the life story of Alexander Graham Bell, a man, without whose product our present would look totally different!

Early life

Alexander Graham Bell was born on March 3, 1847, to Alexander Melville Bell and Eliza Grace Symonds Bell in Edinburgh, Scotland. He had two brothers, Melville James Bell and Edward Charles Bell, both of whom would die of tuberculosis. Having been born simply “Alexander Bell,” at age 10, he begged his father to give him a middle name like his two brothers. On his 11th birthday, his father granted his wish, allowing him to adopt the middle name “Graham,” chosen out of respect for Alexander Graham, a family friend.

In 1864, Bell attended the University of Edinburgh along with his older brother Melville. In 1865, the Bell family moved to London, England, where in 1868, Alexander passed the entrance examinations for University College London. From an early age, Bell had been immersed in the study of sound and hearing. His mother had lost her hearing at age 12, and his father, uncle, and grandfather were authorities on elocution and taught speech therapy for the deaf. It was understood that Bell would follow in the family footsteps after finishing college. However, after his brothers both died of tuberculosis, he withdrew from college in 1870 and immigrated with his family to Canada. In 1871, at age 24, Bell immigrated to the United States, where he taught at the Boston School for Deaf Mutes, the Clarke School for the Deaf in Northampton, Massachusetts, and at the American School for the Deaf in Hartford, Connecticut.

In early 1872, Bell met Boston attorney Gardiner Greene Hubbard, who would become one of his primary financial backers and father-in-law. In 1873, he began working with Hubbard’s 15-year-old daughter Mabel Hubbard, who had lost her hearing at age 5 after nearly dying of scarlet fever. Despite the nearly 10-year difference in their ages, Alexander and Mabel fell in love and were married on July 11, 1877, a matter of days after Alexander had founded the Bell Telephone Company. As a wedding present, Bell gave his bride all but ten of his 1,497 shares in his promising new telephone company. The couple would go on to have four children, daughters Elsie, Marian, and two sons who died in infancy.

In October 1872, Bell opened his own School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech in Boston. One of his students was the young Helen Keller. Unable to hear, see, or speak, Keller would later praise Bell for dedicating his life to helping the deaf break through the “inhuman silence which separates and estranges.”

Path from Telegraph to Telephone

Both the telegraph and the telephone work by transmitting electrical signals over wires, and Bell’s success with the telephone came as a direct result of his attempts to improve the telegraph. When he began experimenting with electrical signals, the telegraph had been an established means of communication for some 30 years. Although a highly successful system, the telegraph was basically limited to receiving and sending one message at a time.

Bell’s extensive knowledge of the nature of sound enabled him to imagine the possibility of transmitting multiple messages over the same wire at the same time. Although the idea of a “multiple telegraph” had been in existence for some time, no one had been able to perfect one.

Between 1873 and 1874, with the financial backing of Thomas Sanders and his future father-in-law Gardiner Hubbard, Bell worked on his “harmonic telegraph,” based on the principle that several different notes could be sent simultaneously along the same wire if the notes or signals differed in pitch. It was during his work on the harmonic telegraph that Bell’s interest drifted to an even more radical idea, the possibility that not just the telegraph’s dots-and-dashes, but the human voice itself could be transmitted over wires.

Concerned that this diversion of interest would slow Bell’s work on the harmonic telegraph they were funding, Sanders and Hubbard hired Thomas A. Watson, a skilled electrician, to keep Bell on track. However, when Watson became a devoted believer in Bell’s ideas for voice transmission, the two men agreed to work together with Bell providing the ideas and Watson doing the electrical work necessary to bring Bell’s ideas to reality.

By October 1874, Bell’s research had progressed to the extent that he could inform his future father-in-law about the possibility of a multiple telegraph. Hubbard, who had long resented the absolute control then exerted by the Western Union Telegraph Company, instantly saw the potential for breaking such a monopoly and gave Bell the financial backing he needed.

Bell proceeded with his work on the multiple telegraph, but he did not tell Hubbard that he and Watson were also developing a device that would transmit speech electrically. While Watson worked on the harmonic telegraph at the insistent urging of Hubbard and other backers, Bell secretly met in March 1875 with Joseph Henry, the respected director of the Smithsonian Institution, who listened to Bell’s ideas for a telephone and offered encouraging words. Spurred on by Henry’s positive opinion, Bell and Watson continued their work.

By June 1875, the goal of creating a device that would transmit speech electrically was about to be realized. They had proven that different tones would vary the strength of an electric current in a wire. To achieve success, they needed only to build a working transmitter with a membrane capable of varying electronic currents and a receiver that would reproduce these variations in audible frequencies.

“Mr. Watson, come Here”!

On June 2, 1875, while experimenting with his harmonic telegraph, Bell and Watson discovered that sound could be transmitted over a wire. It was a completely accidental discovery. Watson was trying to loosen a reed that had been wound around a transmitter when he plucked it by accident. The vibration produced by Watson’s act traveled along the wire into a second device in the other room where Bell was working.

The “twang” Bell heard was all the inspiration that he and Watson needed to accelerate their work. On March 7, 1876, the U.S. Patent Office issued Bell Patent No. 174,465, covering “the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically … by causing electrical undulations, similar in form to the vibrations of the air accompanying the said vocal or other sound.”

On March 10, 1876, three days after he had been granted his patent, Bell famously succeeded in getting his telephone to work. Bell recounted the historic moment in his journal:

“I then shouted into M [the mouthpiece] the following sentence: ‘Mr. Watson, come here—I want to see you.’ To my delight, he came and declared that he had heard and understood what I said.”

Having heard Bell’s voice through the wire, Mr. Watson had just received the first telephone call.

Always the shrewd businessman, Bell took every opportunity to show the public what his telephone could do. After seeing the device in action at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, Emperor of Brazil, Dom Pedro II, exclaimed, “My God, it talks!” Several other demonstrations followed—each successful at a greater distance than the last. On July 9, 1877, the Bell Telephone Company was organized, with Emperor Dom Pedro II being the first person to buy shares. One of the first telephones in a private residence was installed in Dom Pedro’s Petrópolis palace.

On January 25, 1915, Bell successfully made the first transcontinental telephone call. In New York City, Bell spoke into the telephone’s mouthpiece, repeating his famous request, “Mr. Watson, come here. I want you.” From San Francisco, California, 3,400 miles (5,500 km) away, Mr. Watson replied, “It will take me five days to get there now!”

Other research and inventions

Alexander Graham Bell’s curiosity also led him to speculate on the nature of heredity, initially among the deaf and later with sheep born with genetic mutations. In this vein, Bell was an advocate of forced sterilization and was closely connected with the eugenics movement in the United States. In 1883, he presented data to the National Academy of Sciences indicating that congenitally deaf parents were more likely to produce deaf children and tentatively suggested that deaf people should not be allowed to marry each other. He also conducted sheep-breeding experiments at his estate to see if he could increase the numbers of twin and triplet births.

In other instances, Bell’s curiosity drove him to try to come up with novel solutions on the spot whenever problems arose. In 1881, he hastily constructed a metal detector as a way to try and locate a bullet lodged in President James Garfield after an assassination attempt. He would later improve this and produce a device called a telephone probe, which would make a telephone receiver click when it touched metal. And when Bell’s newborn son, Edward, died from respiratory problems, he responded by designing a metal vacuum jacket that would facilitate breathing. The apparatus was a forerunner of the iron lung used in the 1950s to aid polio victims.

Other ideas he dabbled in included inventing the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems and conducting experiments with energy recycling and alternative fuels. Bell also worked on methods of removing salt from seawater.

Flight technology

These interests may be considered minor activities compared to the time and effort he put into making advances in manned flight technology. By the 1890s, Bell had begun experimenting with propellers and kites, which led him to apply the concept of the tetrahedron (a solid figure with four triangular faces) to kite design as well as to create a new form of architecture.

In 1907, four years after the Wright Brothers first flew at Kitty Hawk, Bell formed the Aerial Experiment Association with Glenn Curtiss, William “Casey” Baldwin, Thomas Selfridge, and J.A.D. McCurdy, four young engineers with the common goal of creating airborne vehicles. By 1909, the group had produced four powered aircraft, the best of which, the Silver Dart, made a successful powered flight in Canada on February 23, 1909.

The photophone

Although working with the deaf would remain Bell’s principal source of income, Bell continued to pursue his own studies of sound throughout his life. Bell’s unceasing scientific curiosity led to the invention of the photophone, a device that allowed for the transmission of sound on a beam of light.

Despite being known for his invention of the telephone, Bell regarded the photophone as “the greatest invention I have ever made; greater than the telephone.” The invention set the foundation upon which today’s laser and fiber optic communication systems are rooted, though it would take the development of several modern technologies to fully capitalize on this breakthrough.

With the enormous technical and financial success of his telephone invention, Bell’s future was secure enough so that he could devote himself to other scientific interests. For example, in 1881, he used the $10,000 award for winning France’s Volta Prize to set up the Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C.

A believer in scientific teamwork, Bell worked with two associates: his cousin Chichester Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter, at the Volta Laboratory. After his first visit to Nova Scotia in 1885, Bell set up another laboratory there at his estate Beinn Bhreagh (pronounced Ben Vreeah), near Baddeck, where he would assemble other teams of bright young engineers to pursue new and exciting ideas heading into the future. Their experiments produced such major improvements in Thomas Edison’s phonograph that it became commercially viable. Their design, patented as the Graphophone in 1886, featured a removable cardboard cylinder coated with mineral wax.

Later years and death

Bell spent the last decade of his life improving the designs of hydrofoil boats. As they gain speed, hydrofoils lift the boat’s hull out of the water, decreasing drag and allowing greater speeds. In 1919, Bell and Casey Baldwin built a hydrofoil that set a world water-speed record that was not broken until 1963.

Bell died of complications arising from diabetes and anemia on August 2, 1922, at his estate in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, at age 75. He was buried on August 4, 1922, atop Beinn Bhreagh mountain, on his estate overlooking Bras d’Or Lake. As the funeral ended, all of the more than 14 million telephones in the United States at the time were silenced for one minute.

Upon learning of Bell’s death, Canadian Prime Minister, Mackenzie King, cabled Mabel Bell, saying:

“My colleagues in the Government join with me in expressing to you our sense of the world’s loss in the death of your distinguished husband. It will ever be a source of pride to our country that the great invention, with which his name is immortally associated, is a part of its history. On the behalf of the citizens of Canada, may I extend to you an expression of our combined gratitude and sympathy.”

Legacy

As his once-unimaginable inventions became essential parts of everyday life and his fame grew, honors and tributes to Bell mounted quickly. He received honorary degrees from scores of colleges and universities, fittingly highlighted by a Ph.D. from Gallaudet University for the deaf and hearing-impaired. Along with dozens of major awards, medals, and other tributes, a number of historic sites throughout North America and Europe commemorate Bell.

Bell’s invention of the telephone made instantaneous, long-distance voice communication between individuals, industries, and governments possible for the first time. Today, more than 4 billion people worldwide use telephones every day, either wire-connected landline models based on Bell’s original design or wireless smartphones.

Months before his death in 1922, Bell had told a reporter, “There cannot be mental atrophy in any person who continues to observe, to remember what he observes, and to seek answers for his unceasing how’s and why’s about things”.

 

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The life story of Elon Musk

In this success story, we are going to share the life story of Elon Musk, the CEO and CTO of SpaceX CEO, chief product architect of Tesla Motors, chairman of SolarCity, and co-founder of PayPal. Musk is also involved in developing a high-speed transportation system known as Hyperloop. Elon Musk invests in the projects that can change our world. He is not only an entrepreneur but also an inventor, innovator, and engineer: Musk personally participates in designing electric cars and spaceships.

Elon Musk was the second entrepreneur in the Silicon Valley (the first one was James H. Clark) who managed to create three companies with the market cap of more than $1 billion – PayPal, SpaceX, and Tesla Motors. Elon Musk dedicates himself to space and alternative energy technologies.

Net Worth: $22.0 billion (2019)
Birth Date: June 28, 1971
Place of Birth: Pretoria, South Africa
Education: University of Pennsylvania, Stanford University, Queen’s University, Ontario

He plays by some different rules and does that quite successfully. The distinctive personality traits of Elon Musk are perseverance, critical thinking and accurate self – analysis.

Early life

Elon Reeve Musk was born on June 28, 1971, in Pretoria, South Africa. He was the oldest of three children. His father is a South African-born British and engineer Errol Musk, and his mother is a Canadian-English and dietetics expert Maye Musk. Musk spent his childhood in South Africa and at the age of 9, he got his first personal computer, the Commodore VIC-20. Elon immediately got interested in programming and started to learn it by himself. At the age of 12, he earned $500 by selling a computer game Blastar (a shooter similar to Space Invaders), which he had created by himself.

Biographies of famous people usually contain key episodes, which then lead them to an overwhelming success. In Elon Musk biography, there were, at least, two of such episodes. The first one was the decision that Musk made when he was only 17. After graduating from a secondary school in Pretoria, he decided to leave his home, and, without the support of his parents, to immigrate to the United States. However, he did not get into the United States right away.

In 1989, Elon Musk moved to Canada to the relatives of his mother. Having obtained Canadian citizenship, Elon went to Montreal. At first, he worked in low paid jobs, and almost a year was teetering on the brink of poverty. At the age of 19, he entered Queens University in Kingston, Ontario. In 2000, he met his future wife Justine Musk, who later gave birth to his five sons: Damian, Griffin, Xavier, Saxon, and Kai. However, he broke up with Justine after eight years and in 2010, got married a second time on a British actress by the name of Talulah Riley, with whom he has lived for 4 years and got divorced in 2014.

Elon Musk had been studying in Ontario for two years, and then, finally, his dream came true – in 1992, he relocated to the United States. He was able to move to the US after receiving a scholarship from The University of Pennsylvania: Penn. He earned his Bachelor of Science degree in Physics Bachelor the next year, but decided to continue his studying at The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania for one more year and obtained a Bachelor of Science degree in Economics as well.

When Elon Musk started to struggle with adolescent depression, he began to absorb philosophical and religious literature actively. Yet the most valuable lessons, he eventually learned from Douglas Adams’ book The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy”.

Elon Musk learned that the most difficult thing was to be able to come up with the right questions, and when he began to do that, the rest was obtained very simply. An episode that guided him to this conclusion was in which a giant supercomputer after several million years of thinking on the main purpose of life responded with a meaningless number 42.

Musk figured out that humanity had to expand the limits of its consciousness to learn to ask the right questions; and he had found his question: what things would have a significant impact on the future of humanity’s destiny? Elon Musk decided that those would be the internet, the transition to renewable energy sources, and space colonization. He wanted to try to contribute to all three of them. To do that, he needed funds.

Zip2 and PayPal

In the summer of 1995, Elon Musk made the second and the most crucial decision in his life. Having graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, he enrolled in the graduate school at Stanford University to pursue studies in the field of applied physics and materials science. However, after 2 days, he left graduate school and together with his brother, Kimbal Musk, he created his first IT company Zip2. He worked from early morning until late evening. He lived in the same warehouse where he rent the office, and when he needed to take a shower, he had to go to locker rooms of a local stadium. In return, he accumulated savings and kept the company afloat during the most difficult first two years.

At that moment, the Internet was experiencing a period of rapid growth and development; however, nobody had ever earned a considerable fortune on it. Musk’s company was one of the first ones to do this: he created a platform where newspapers – including credible ones as the New York Times – could offer their customers some additional commercial services.

In 1999, the biggest search engine of that time AltaVista (later acquired by Compaq) bought Zip2 for $307 million in cash and $34 million in securities. This deal set a record for selling a company for cash. Musk spent $20 million on a 1,800-square-foot condominium and completely renovated it. Also, he bought McLaren F1, which he would wreck in 2000, and 12-seat Dassault 900 private jet.

In 1999, Musk started to work on electronic payment systems that were gaining popularity. The X.com startup became his new business. In March 2000, X.com merged with a rival company Confinity that was running by Peter Thiel and Max Levchin. Confinity developed software to allow owners of PalmPilots and other PDAs to store encrypted information on their devices, creating the first digital wallet. In 2001, after the merger, X.com was renamed to PayPal, and Elon Musk became the chairman and chief executive of PayPal.

There were some disagreements on strategy and management between new teams, but they have never affected the company’s dynamics and growth. Musk was involved in the development of new business models, conducted a successful viral marketing campaign, which led to a rapid increase in the number of customers. In 2002, eBay bought PayPal for $1.5 billion. Elon Musk received $180 million for his share from PayPal and had enough funds to pursue his other interests: space engineering and alternative energy sources. That was then when Elon stopped investing in internet business.

Tesla motors

In 2003, engineers Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning founded Tesla Motors. From the very beginning, the company positioned itself as the first serial manufacturer of electric vehicles and its founders dreamed of freeing the customers from oil burden. Musk significantly supported such aspirations.

Elon Musk came into the project in 2004, leading an investment round in the startup with a personal contribution of $70 million. He became the chairman of the board of directors and, at first, did not take over the operational management of the company. Musk participated in designing their first electric car, which was a Tesla Roadster sports car based on the British Lotus Elise. He insisted on using carbon fiber composite materials in the hull to minimize weight, developed the battery module and even some elements of design, like the headlights. By 2006, the project has got into newspapers, and Musk received the Global Green 2006 product design award for Tesla Roadster design. Tesla Motors continued to grow, and now the pool of investors, including the creators of Google, Larry Page, and Sergey Brin and the total amount of the investments reached over $100 million.

However, when Tesla Roadster was about to enter the production in 2007, a run of bad luck started for Musk. Some management failures led to the fact that the actual selling price of the electric vehicle was almost twice as high as the initially implicit price of $92,000. In addition, Martin Eberhard made a strategic miscalculation: his concept of transmission for Tesla Roadster proved to be ineffective, and the release of the car had to be postponed for more than a year.

During this crisis, Elon showed his incredible critical management skill: he fired everyone who stalled the project’s development, including Eberhard and a few other key players. After the cleanup, he headed the company by himself. Eberhard appealed to the court after being replaced by an interim CEO, Michael Marks, but the problem has been solved peacefully and so effectively that no details of the conflict were leaked to the public. In December 2007, Ze’ev Drori was assigned as the CEO and President of Tesla Motors. Elon Musk was much better CEO and succeeded Ze’ev Drori. Drori became Vice Chairman and left the company in December 2008.

On the verge of crisis, Elon Musk continued vigorously cutting costs effectively: he reduced staff, demanded lower prices from suppliers, closed some of the offices, etc. As a result, Tesla Roadster saw the world in 2008 with a minor – less than $20,000 – increase in price.

In his most difficult moment in the late spring 2008, Elon filed for divorce from his spouse Justine, for reasons he did not want to make public. To save Tesla Motors, Musk received additional funds for the takeover of a software development company Everdream for $120 million by Dell; Elon Musk was the principal shareholder of it. He invested his last $20 million in Tesla Motors and finally saved the company from bankruptcy. Musk even gave personal guarantees to customers to make a refund in the event of the business failure.

Soon, things went smoothly, which was especially impressive against the backdrop of stagnating traditional auto industry. A German multinational automotive corporation Daimler made critical investments of $50 million in Tesla Motors, and it helped save the company. Soon, the U.S. Department of Energy authorized the inclusion of Tesla Motors in a pool of innovative transport companies and authorized it to receive a preferential interest-bearing loan. Later, some skeptics have criticized the government for their decision to support Tesla Motors, whose product was focused exclusively on wealthy buyers.

The expression “electric vehicle” often evokes associations with something slow and clumsy, but in the case of Tesla Motors, it is not really so. Tesla’s electric vehicles are fast and similar in appearance to luxury sports cars. However, there are also plans to create more simple and affordable models. Tesla Motors’ engineers cooperate with Daimler and Toyota.

So-called “hybrid” cars of these companies, equipped as with an electric motor and an internal combustion engine, use Tesla Motors’ technology. In 2007, the Vice Chairman of General Motors, Bob Lutz called Tesla the main reason for the decision to begin development of the electric car Chevy Volt. “If some Silicon Valley startup can solve this equation, no one is going to tell me anymore that it’s unfeasible,” Lutz said.

On June 29, 2010, Tesla Motors started its initial public offering (IPO). It was the second (after Ford) car-manufacturing company in the U.S. history that entered the IPO market. Tesla Motors, despite being unprofitable for 10 years, got listed on NASDAQ with $17 per stock and attracted more than $225 million of investments. It was truly the best time to enter the IPO market. The oil slick due to the fault of British Petroleum covered a significant part of the Gulf of Mexico was continuing to grow and to raise the issue of the transition to new fuels seemed more than logical at that time. As of February 05, 2015, one share of stock of Tesla Motors, Inc. cost $220.99, and its total market cap reached $27.44 billion. Elon Musk owns 30% of Tesla Motors, Inc. (TSLA).

Model S

The main reason for Tesla’s financial success became a premium sedan Tesla Model S, with the battery that supplies 265 miles (426 km) of range in the EPA 5-cycle test. The production of Model S started in June 2012 with a price tag starting at $69,900 and was ranked 99 out of 100 points by Consumer Reports and the highest safety rating from the National Highway Safety Administration, a 5.4 out of 5 points.

At the presentation of Model S, Musk categorically stated that in twenty years, more than half of produced vehicles would be electric ones. He was even ready to bet on that as well as many others. Yet even the most optimistic analysts’ estimates state that Musk’s forecast cannot be realized. However, that does not scare Tesla’s CEO: by embellishing reality, he changes it.

Elon Musk believes that the world has become dependent on oil. This dependence leads to climate change and permanent geopolitical tensions. A refusal of internal combustion engines in favor of electric motors can make a difference. Therefore, Tesla Motors is not a small business for Musk.

Musk continued to keep publicity interested in the company by starting a media argument with The New York Times columnist John M. Broder about one of the test drives of the Model S. It is worth mentioning that these publicity stunts gave their results and during the first half of 2013, there were 10,500 Model S sold.

On October 09, 2014, The Tesla Motors team unveiled Model S 85D and P85D. That is the first electric car with a dual motor. Model S P85D has 691 hp motor power and an ‘insane mode’ acceleration: a 0-60 mph (0-97 kmh) run of 3.2 seconds. Additionally, the car can be equipped with a revolutionary autopilot system: a forward-looking camera, radar, and 360-degree ultrasonic sensors that actively monitor the surrounding roadway. With enabled autopilot system, Model S is able to automatically change lanes, indicate and avoid pedestrians and collisions and even to read speed limit signs, adjusting the car’s speed accordingly. In addition, the new Model S has increased battery capacity. The cost starts at $79,900. Visually, however, the vehicle is going to be very similar to its counterpart Model S 60. On February 2014, Tesla Model S was rated by Consumer Reports as the best car in the world for the second year in a row.

There is an upcoming cross-over Tesla Model X, which is planned to be delivered for new reservations in the latter half of 2016. On September 29, 2015, the first six deliveries of the Tesla X model started at a market launch event in the Fremont factory. The Tesla Motors team has designed the Model X P90D and 90D. Model X P90D has 259 hp front, 503 hp rear motor power and a 0-60 mph (0-97 kmh) run of 3.2 seconds with Ludicrous Speed Upgrade. Additionally, Tesla X has a panoramic windshield, ample seating for seven adults and all of their gear. The car equipped with the first true HEPA filter with “Bioweapon Defense Mode” button in a vehicle. Musk stated that when the HEPA filter operates at maximum performance, no pollen, bacteria or viruses could be detected in the cabin. Model X equipped with Falcon Wing doors that are automatically adjusted to the optimal opening arc.

Model 3

On March 31, 2016, Elon Musk unveiled the five-seater car, Tesla Model 3. That is the most affordable Tesla car yet with a price tag starting at $35,000. The base car can do a 0-60 mph (0-97 kmh) run under 6 seconds. The range is at least 215 miles (346 km), and plus supercharger support is capable. Model 3 includes all the autopilot safety features and will be equipped in both rear-wheel drive and all-wheel-drive versions. Musk said that it would be one of the world safest cars in the world. Deliveries of Model 3 begin late 2017.

Elon Musk is planning to cover the US, Europe, and Asia with the network of Supercharger stations. As of April 04, 2016, there are 613 Supercharger stations with 3,628 Superchargers in the world.

Semi truck

In November 2017, Musk unveiled the new Tesla Semi Truck and Roadster. Tesla Motors started producing Semi Truck in 2019. The truck can drive 500 miles (804km), and its battery capacity designed to last 1 million miles (1,60 million km).

Roadster and Model Y

In March 2019, Musk revealed to the world the long-awaited Tesla Model Y. The compact crossover will be available in four power trains, such as Standard Range, Long Range or Long Range with Dual Motor All-Wheel Drive, and Performance. It is expected to be released in 2020. The Tesla Model Y’s range is at approximately 300 miles (482 km) can do a 0-60 mph (0-97 kmh) run for 3.5 seconds. The Roadster is planned to be available in 2020 with a 0-60 mph (0-97 kmh) time of 1.9 seconds.

Powerwall

On May 01, 2015, within the Tesla Energy project, Tesla Motors introduced a wall mounted, rechargeable lithium-ion battery with liquid thermal control, called Powerwall. There are two models of it: one goes with 10 kWh with a price tag of $3,500, which is applicable for backup applications, and another battery goes with 7 kWh – $3,000, which can be used for daily cycle applications. Powerwall batteries can be combined in arrays to increase the total storage capacity. Each battery is provided by a 10-year manufacturer’s warranty.

For more demanding consumers of energy, Tesla Motors provides a solution, called Powerpack. It can be used in offices, industrial facilities, and utilities. In this case, it is possible to store much more energy. Moreover, 100 kWh batteries can be combined into arrays from 500 kWh to 10 MWh. According to Elon Musk, 160 million Powerpack units would be enough to provide energy to all consumers in the United States; and 2 billion of Powerpack units would be sufficient for the whole world.

SolarCity

SolarCity Corporation is a provider of energy services headquartered in San Mateo, California, USA. The co-founders of SolarCity are two cousins Lyndon and Peter Rive. Elon Musk is a shareholder of the company. In 2003, he invested $10 million in it, after selling his 11 percent of PayPal stock.

SolarCity provides solar power systems for homes, businesses, and governments. The company offers several programs for homeowners: “MyPower” loan program, solar lease, and solar power purchase agreement (PPA).

In May 2008, the company built solar-powered electric systems for British Motors and eBay to power their headquarters and servers.

On January 15, 2015, SolarCity tied up with Credit Suisse Group AG to start a new solar financing facility worth $200 million. This credit facility is targeted at assisting customers in investing in solar energy systems through the SolarCity’s “MyPower” loan program. This energy plan enables customers to own their solar systems in order to pay less for electricity when compared to leasing them through power purchase agreements (PPAs). For example, it helps to decrease the price per kilowatt-hour, and customers are required to pay back the loan at 16 cents a kilowatt-hour for the first year.

SolarCity’s concepts are cost-efficient, environmentally friendly, and entirely coincides with Elon Musk’s principles. The company, in particular, provides solar energy systems for Supercharger stations of Tesla Motors.

However, leadership in the industry does not save SolarCity from criticism. Some skeptics state that solar electric power will never turn into an efficient business model, and considering the fact that the competition is too high in this industry, it would be challenging to keep a company in the leading position. However, on December 10, 2012, since SolarCity entered the IPO market, the value of its stock shares jumped from $8 to $11.79. As of February 13, 2015, the stock share price was $57.60, and the total market cap was $5.53 billion. Now Elon Musk owns 25% of SolarCity (SCTY).

Analysts consider his assurance in the company’s prospects to be the primary reason for the phenomenal success. If the creator of SpaceX and Tesla Motors bets on that technology, then it means that there is genuinely something to it. The Wall Street society even came up with a term for this phenomenon and called it The Musk Effect.

SpaceX

Elon Musk started thinking of creating a space exploration technologies corporation (SpaceX) at the turn of the century. He was inspired by an ambitious idea of reducing space transportation costs to enable people to colonize Mars. SpaceX was founded in 2002 and is headquartered in Hawthorne, California, USA.

Elon Musk was fascinated by the opportunity of colonizing Mars and created Mars Oasis. The goal of the project was to create automated greenhouses, which, in the future, could have become a basis for a self-sustaining ecosystem. The main problem was the enormous delivery cost of greenhouses to Mars. Musk even tried to order launch vehicles from the Russian Federation and discussed that with Russian officials, but he decided not to make a deal with them. Later Musk came up with an idea to design his own reusable launch vehicles and spaceships.

On March 2006, Elon Musk invested more than $100 million in SpaceX. The prices per launch vehicle ranged from $15 million in the Russian Federation to $65 million in the U.S., and they seemed to be too high to the entrepreneur. He calculated that the cost price of all the parts required for constructing a launch vehicle was only 2% of the launch vehicle price in the United States. This fact outraged Musk. The root of the problem he saw in the bureaucratization of the space industry, the small competitiveness of large corporations and their lobbying efforts to prevent the entry of new players.

Musk was assured that the costs of creating and launching launch vehicles and spaceships could be reduced tenfold. First, he needed to redefine the goal of spaceflights. The primary mission of SpaceX is not a delivery of astronauts and cargo into orbit, but the colonization of other planets like Mars and Musk wants to do that efficiently. On August 2008, one of the first investors who financially supported Elon Musk was Founders Fund that belonged to his former PayPal partners, Peter Thiel, and Dave McClure. On June 2009, Steve Jurvetson on behalf of DFJ Venture led an undisclosed investment round including Founders Fund, which executed, at least, $15 million of the proposed $60 million. On November 9, 2010, DFJ Venture and Founders Fund led another round of investments and SpaceX raised $50.2 million. Yet, after all, the investment rounds Elon Musk owns 66% of SpaceX shares.

SpaceX started working on the Falcon 1 launch system yet in 2002. It has taken 4 years and hundreds of millions of private investments to design it. In the period of 2006 through 2015 such companies as DARPA, NASA, ORS, Celestis, ATSB, SpaceDev, Orbcomm, NSPO, Astrium got interested in SpaceX and ran several test launches of Falcon 1 rocket

In 2006-2008, the first three flight attempts failed. On 28 September 2008, during the fourth flight attempt, Falcon 1 finally reached the orbit. If the fourth launch also failed, SpaceX would have never existed. NASA was impressed by these achievements and signed a $1.6 billion contract to fly American astronauts to and from Earth orbit. NASA plans to fly 12 delivery flights using SpaceX robotic Dragon spacecraft and Falcon 9 rocket

As of October 2012, SpaceX developed several types of rocket engines: Kestrel, Merlin 1, Draco and Super Draco without any support from the government. The last one was developed for the use in the Falcon family of launch vehicles, which are Falcon 1, Falcon 9, and Falcon Heavy, and for the use in the Dragon spacecraft.

However, Elon Musk does not want to rush with IPO this time. According to Elon Musk, all the achievements of SpaceX is a background for his biggest dream – an expedition to Mars. SpaceX is in designing process of Mars Colonial Transporter. Also, Musk’s engineers work on innovative rocket engines (Grasshopper and the Falcon 9 rockets) and Red Dragon spacecraft that using Falcon Heavy rockets (modified version of Dragon capsule) to transport people from Earth to Mars. He once said, “I would like to die on Mars, just not on impact.”

Grasshopper and Falcon 9 are experimental launch vehicles that are able to make vertical landings and vertical takeoffs. On January 10, 2015, the first attempt to land the SpaceX Falcon 9 rockets on Earth after the launch failed – it landed too roughly. Nevertheless, the SpaceX team managed to make a difficult maneuver and landed a rockets on a floating platform off the coast of Florida.

On February 12, 2015, Falcon 9 rockets successfully delivered the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) satellite to deep space orbit from SpaceX’s Launch Complex 40 located at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. DSCOVR satellite was developed by a mutual partnership of NOAA, NASA, and the United States Air Force. The satellite was developed to detect and inform on extreme emissions from the sun, which can affect communications infrastructures, satellites close to the Earth and power grids.

CEO Elon Musk reported through Twitter about the soft vertical landing of the rocket in the ocean within 10 meters. That gives hope for a successful landing next time at sea in non-stormy weather. According to the entrepreneur, in 10-20 years from now, science fiction can become a reality.

On April 08, 2016, after four unsuccessful attempts, SpaceX made history by landing the first stage of its Falcon 9 rockets on a drone ship at sea.

Elon Musk demonstrated that SpaceX can potentially reuse rockets in the future, which means cost savings for the company.

The incredible life of Elon Musk is a great example of a man who has accomplished his childhood dream: he conquers space. Colonization of Mars will soon become a reality thanks to SpaceX’s innovations in the space industry.

Interplanetary transport system

On September 27, 2016, at the International Astronautical Conference in Mexico, Elon Musk gave a keynote speech called Making Humans a Multiplanetary Species and announced that SpaceX was working on Interplanetary Transport System (ITS). ITS will be equipped with at least 42 Raptor rocket engines capable of 128 meganewtons of thrust. Raptor is the first type of cryogenic methane-fueled rocket engines developed by SpaceX that was successfully test-fired at a McGregor, Texas testing facility in September 2016.

The spaceship is capable of carrying around 100 passengers in the pressured cabin, cargo, plus luggage and materials to construct foundries and factories.

Elon Musk plans to achieve 1 million population for a Mars colony; that means 100 people per trip is 10,000 trips. Musk thinks to implement this plan can take from 40 to 100 years.

The initial trip time from Earth to Mars can take 80 days. However, Musk is intended to reduce the journey time to as little as 30 days in the distant future.

The biggest challenge is to reduce the cost per flight per one passenger beyond $200,000 or even to $100,000. Based on the traditional space flight model, the cost per passenger reaches $10 billion.

Elon Musk anticipates that if things go well, the first crew flight may happen within the next ten years.

Hyperloop

Elon Musk is a demanding perfectionist and innovator in the high-tech industry. His education in the field of physics and economics helps him to see the objective truth and separate it from the emotional and speculative forecasts. He just thinks big. A bright example would be his concept of the fifth mode of transport called Hyperloop.

On August 12, 2013, Musk published a blog post about Hyperloop and a 58-page Alpha Hyperloop presentation, which shed some light on its structure and function. Hyperloop is a solar-power high-speed transportation system driven by linear induction motors and air compressors should deliver people from Los Angeles to San Francisco in 30 minutes covering the distance of 381.8 miles (614.44 km). Hyperloop is based on the similar technology of magnetic levitation trains. An electromagnetic impulse is used to move the “pods” or “capsules”, and a low air pressure makes it possible to achieve higher speeds than any other ground transportation.

Hyperloop would be two times faster than a plane and will not be limited to any schedule. Elon Musk wanted to share Hyperloop concept with the Governor of California Jerry Brown and the US President Barack Obama of how to build an efficient transportation system in the nearest future. Musk thinks that Hyperloop can be a great alternative to the Government’s plans to construct a high-speed railroad between San Francisco and Los Angeles, which will cost more than $70 billion. In his opinion, spending so many funds on such a slow type of transportation is wrong.

The transportation system would be composed of steel tubes. These tubes would be mounted on columns 50 to 100 yards apart (45.72 to 91.44 meters), and the capsules inside would speed up to 800 mph (1287 kmh).

The Hyperloop transportation system would be powered by solar panels mounted all the way along the track. In addition, the heritage of other Musk’s companies comes handy here: the motors and electronics of the capsules can be inherited from Tesla Motors, the engineers from SolarCity can help with the solar panels, and SpaceX can share the materials that have been tested in space.

One capsule would be able to accommodate up to 28 people, and if the budget of the project were increased from $6 to $10 billion, the Hyperloop cargo capsules would be able to carry up to three cars in one cargo capsule. The starting acceleration of the capsule would be similar to that of a plane. There would be 70 capsules on the preliminary route with a minimum delay interval of 30 seconds; the safe distance between the capsules would be 5 miles (8 km). The payback period of investments is 20 years if a one-way ticket price is $20 and the annual number of transported passengers each way reaches 7.4 million.

The first Hyperloop transportation system is planned to be built along the California highway Interstate 5. Musk promises passengers an unprecedented level of security. Project engineers took into account the possibility of emergency braking at depressurization of the capsule and even offered solutions bridge building anti-seismic design of columns for leveling the risk of destruction by an earthquake.

Hyperloop is going to be a great way of transportation for large cities located at a distance of not more than 900 miles (1500 km) from each other. For longer distances, aircraft is more suitable, the inventor believes.

Even though Musk is not ready to devote sufficient time to the Hyperloop concept, he is still willing to finance the development of the prototype. He also made Hyperloop design as an open source, allowing everyone to improve the current version of it, guaranteeing all possible support. As Elon Musk said he was not afraid of losing something on Hyperloop financially, but it would be great to make a new mode of transport.

On January 15, 2015, Elon Musk, during his speech at the 10th Annual Texas Transportation Forum, announced the creation of Hyperloop beta test track somewhere in Texas with a total length of 5 miles (8 km). In the future, this track is planned to be used by different companies and a group of talented students of engineers to test capsules of their own design. Musk also plans to organize an annual student Hyperloop capsule racer competition, like Formula SAE.

On February 26, 2015, Hyperloop Transportation Technologies (HTT or HyperloopTT) signed an agreement to begin construction of the first full-scale test track in 2016 of Hyperloop in the California model town of Quay Valley and complete the construction by 2017. In 2016, HyperloopTT received $100 million of investments to build a test track. On June 25, 2019, HyperloopTT presented their full-scale 1049ft (320m) passenger system to the US officials from the US Department of Transportation in Toulouse, France. Also, they highlighted the first certification guidelines for Hyperloop systems to the USDOT in Washington, D.C.

The boring company

In January 2017, Musk unveiled The Boring Company, an enterprise dedicated to boring and building tunnels for vehicles to reduce street traffic in cities. Musk started with a test tunnel on the SpaceX facilities in Los Angeles. In October 2017, he uploaded the first photo of the tunnel on his Instagram account. The length of the test tunnel was supposed to be 2 miles (3.31km) and Musk planned to reach such length in approximately four months.

Elon Musk book list

In one of his interviews, Elon Musk said that he liked to read fiction books and biographies of famous people, namely “Benjamin Franklin: An American Life” by Walter Isaacson, “Tesla: Inventor of the Electrical Age” by B. Carlson, “Structures: Or Why Things Don’t Fall Down” by J.E. Gordon, etc.

In addition, he loves Dale Carnegie’s books and, of course, a lot of literature on engineering, design, business, and physics. Favobooks collected Elon Musk book list, and his most favorite one is “The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” by Douglas Adams.

Elon Musk is the 21st-century industrialist, who brings the most fantastic ideas into life. Elon Musk life story shows that all his success he achieved thanks to his perseverance, hard work and, of course, thanks to his absolute faith in his projects.

 

 

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The life story of Henry John Heinz

In this success story, we are going to share with you the life story of Henry John Heinz, the founder of “The H. J. Heinz Company”. As a rule, biographies of many famous American entrepreneurs all look alike – they all have started from scratch, but thanks to the perseverance and enterprise ended up being millionaires. Today that is one of the largest food processing companies. For instance, six out of ten ketchup bottles consumed in the United States were produced by Heinz, while at the same time, the share of ketchup sales is about 30% of the total company sales. However, the company still produces a vast variety of other products as well.

High performance, ingenuity, and hard work are among the distinctive personality traits of Henry J. Heinz. However, not only these qualities helped him to become a successful entrepreneur – Henry was also very attentive to the product and employees of the company.

Childhood

The ancestors of Henry Heinz lived in Germany and produced wine. His father John Henry Heinz was born in Germany. Thus, it is not a big surprise that his father spent his entire childhood in the vineyard. At the age of 19, John Heinz went into the military service, and when he returned, he decided to move to the United States of America. Relatives have never learned the true reasons for his relocation – Heinz family was not in poverty, so it is illogical to assume that Henry’s father decided to leave the country to get rich. Even though at those times it was the main reason for moving to the U.S., only Germans, whose relatives were already living there, dared to migrate. Nobody wanted to go to a foreign country, having no friends and acquaintances, as it was too risky. Nevertheless, John H. Heinz took that risk.

At the age of 21, John, along with other migrant families, settled in the stronghold of German emigrants in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He decided to build a brickyard and started with the opening of a small business. This was also, where John met his love a conservative, hard-working, and a very religious woman. Her name was Anna Margaret Schmidt. At the age of 20, she moved to the United States from Hessen, Germany. At the time, German immigrants have traditionally always kept together; even marriages had to be contracted within the community. Anna and John got married and gave birth to six wonderful kids – the first-born was named Henry John Heinz.

Henry John Heinz was born on October 11, 1844. The boy grew up surrounded by the hardworking family and started gaining experience in the field of horticulture at a very young age. Mother always spoke to Henry in German, and he learned German pedantry, which remained one of his key qualities throughout life. When the boy turned 6 years old, he started to help around the house and garden. At the age of nine, Henry nailed the recipes of pickles and started selling homemade grated horseradish in the downtown of Pittsburgh. Even though many of his peers worked as hard as Henry, he realized that it also could be a good way to build a career. The rest of the children often worked to provide financial assistance to their parents only.

When Henry turned 10, the parents granted him 3,000 square meters of land, and in the age of 12, he was the owner of 12,000 squares meters of the land, which was perfect for growing vegetables on it. Gardening became the boy’s passion – he was spending hours and days in the garden, sparing no effort.

Sometime later, he started driving his crop to the local greengrocer who was selling vegetables and fruits to the residents of Pittsburgh. However, gradually, with German thoroughness, Henry expanded his own business – soon one could buy Heinz’s grated horseradish at the grocery. Its taste was already familiar to many locals, as Henry has always used his mother’s recipes.

At the time of Henry J. Heinz childhood, fooling the customers was a regular part of any business in the U.S. One of the local newspapers wrote, “In so-called horseradish, we can find more turnips and water-soaked wood sticks than the horseradish itself.” Therefore, to show an excellent quality of his product, Henry packed it in clear glass jars. Such transarency and a high quality of the product made a good impression on the customers, thus increasing the popularity of the grated horseradish Heinz offered.

When Henry J. Heinz had graduated from high school, his garden has grown to such an extent that he had to hire workers. Over 1861, when the Henry was just 17 years old, he earned a decent amount of money for those days – $ 2,400 (if translated into today’s money, you would get something around $ 43,000).

Henry’s mother, Anna Margaret Schmidt, always cheered and supported him in the case of failure; she knew how to comfort her son and instill confidence in him. She taught Henry communication skills. In addition, Anna Margaret Schmidt, being a very religious woman, sincerely hoped that her son would become a priest – she even brought him to the neighborhood Lutheran school. However, Henry was not interested in religious practice because he felt the compulsion to the figures and tables. This is the reason why he left the Lutheran school and decided to go through business training in one of top financial America’s colleges – Duff’s Mercantile College. Henry J. Heinz financed his education on his own, using the money collected from the sale of the vegetables from his garden. In college, Heinz learned how to keep records and accounting books – later, he was regularly taking notes and led a strict accounting of income and expenses of his business.

After graduating from Duff’s Mercantile College, Henry started working at the brickyard of his father. He learned all the intricacies of this business, made some minor changes in the production of bricks and, most important, got a tax refund from the taxpayers. Suddenly, the father realized that he was dependent on his son, who became an indispensable employee. Henry took care of all accounting paperwork with great enthusiasm, as his father, in his essence, was instead an artisan than a businessperson. Thus, in 1864, 20-year-old Henry was running a brick factory almost single-handed. Subsequently, he was even able to expand the production, while his father went to visit his relatives in Germany.

Meanwhile, the brickyard began to bring a decent income, and Heinz family soon was able to move from a tiny house to a villa built from the bricks produced by their factory.

Heinz & noble

Being an adult, Henry J. Heinz was still interested in the recipes of his mother, and he was constantly experimenting, trying to improve them. Heinz was always in search of new business ideas, and this time decided that the market of canned food is worth trying. In 1869, together with a friend and neighbor L. Clarence Noble he launched a company named Heinz & Noble. It provided restaurants and cafes with sauerkraut, grated horseradish, pickles, and other products. Henry knew that people did not particularly trust canned products due to the rapid poisoning cases, so he decided not to put the name of his company on the labels. First, he always sent a sample of his product with a fake label, and only then, if it succeeded, put his brand name on it.

The sale of prepackaged products was the right choice at that time. The steel-casting industry was well-developed in Pittsburg, and most of the men worked for 12 hours a day, thus having no time for cooking. They preferred to buy the food, which was ready for immediate consumption. More than 60 companies picked up this tendency and began to supply the market with various types of preserved products.

In the same year of 1869, he married Sarah Sloan Young. She was a first-generation American, whose family was Scotch – Irish, in the Methodist church he was attending. They fell in love and decided to marry, after getting the blessing of Henry’s mother. Later, Henry J. and Sarah Heinz had four children: three sons – Clarence, Clifford, Howard, and daughter Irene.

The company’s revenue reached a few thousand dollars in a year of its founding. To survive in the fierce competition, it was necessary not only to provide the consumers with high-quality products but also to make them more available. How could this goal be achieved? First, the production must be massive. Therefore, the Heinz house, which was left empty after the family had moved to the villa, was reorganized for production of Heinz & Noble in 1874. Henry hired several German homemakers who were engaged in washing and canning vegetables. Secondly, during the springtime, they concluded an agreement of purchasing the whole crop from the local farmers at a fixed price. In this way, they also saved much money since during adverse weather conditions in summer or autumn the cost of vegetables could increase significantly. In addition, Heinz & Noble purchased horses and vans to deliver the crop in advance; they also bought a factory for the production of vinegar in St. Louis, Missouri. The company has reached great success, and Henry became a wealthy entrepreneur, who could easily support his own family.

Things were going well, and young partners expected to have a considerable profit, but then something they could not predict happened – the harvest of cucumber broke all record numbers that year, so their company did not have enough working capital to cover the contracts with the farmers. Sure thing, they could get a loan in a bank, but in 1875, the U.S. financial crisis erupted, resulting in the entire banking system to be paralyzed. Farmers applied to the court, resulting in Heinz & Noble to find its place among the 5,000 bankrupt enterprises. All the property had to be sold in order to compensate for the losses of the farmers. Besides, The Pittsburgh Leader newspaper made fun of their business.

The collapse of the company and Its new breakthrough

After reading the malicious headline “Trio in a Pickle” in The Pittsburgh Leader, Clarence Noble said that he did not want to hear a word about any private business in general. As well as his business partner, Henry has experienced severe emotional stress, and it took him a very long time to recover. Christmas of 1875 was the worst one in his life, as he even could not afford to buy gifts to his children. Heinz has long remained depressed; he did not get out of bed for several months. At this challenging time, his kind and wise mother, who always knew how to support her son and instill the confidence into his heart, helped her beloved offspring to get back to life. She gave Henry all her savings so that he could give his business idea a second try.

Inspired Henry used the money wisely and registered Heinz Food Company to the names of his relatives (mother, cousin and brother John), continuing to produce and sell sauces and pickles. He was the head of the company, although he was not allowed to manage it by the law, as his mother owned most of the shares. The Heinz business became a family business. The relatives even conducted a board meeting in the kitchen during a family dinner. Henry walked on foot to his fields daily to check how the things were going. Only sometime after, when he had saved a little money, Henry J. Heinz was able to buy a horse, which was affordable because of its blindness.

The National American sauce

The situation of a 31-year-old businessman was not an easy one. He had to start even not from scratch but with reimbursement of his debts. Henry John Heinz worked hard, canning the jars on his own to pay off all the liabilities. “I am wearing brain and body out,” he wrote in his diary titled “Panic Times.”

Henry tried hard to mark the point, where he has made a mistake. Thinking about it, Henry J. Heinz decided that the critical error occurred in the process of growing vegetables. He concluded that The Heinz Food Company should have its own land to control an entire cycle of production, starting with growing of seedlings and ending with the delivery of canned vegetables into the trading network. This was the only way to ensure the product’s quality and to reduce the risk of failure caused by the weather conditions or economic crises. However, the business based on the principles of the natural economy would still fail in the cost of production comparing to the specialized enterprises. Therefore, he needed to focus on quality.

From Henry J. Heinz biography, we learned that initially, Henry tried to make mustard, but in early 1876, he mastered the production of tomato sauce, which was later called ketchup. Nowadays, there is a widespread legend which says that the Chinese condiment “ke-tsiap” (brine or sauce with canned fish) was a prototype of ketchup, which Heinz introduced to the world with the minor changes. The reality was different, as at that time tomato paste was already on the market. The customers avoided tomato paste, but not because they did not trust the quality of tomatoes (the time when tomatoes were considered poisonous, has already passed). That is because of the story of how in 1776 a Loyalist cook tried to poison George Washington with a dish made of tomatoes was known by every American, as they learned about it only in 1820.

Tomatoes were not considered poisonous anymore, but this applies only to the fresh fruit. Unripe and rotten tomatoes, which were used for tomato paste production, were still considered poisonous. Later it turned out that this was the truth as such tomatoes contained a powerful poison called solanine. At the same time, in Europe, the tomato sauce was widespread. The German botanical dictionary, published in 1811, stated, “Even though tomatoes are considered to be poisonous they are used for the production of sour sauce in Portugal and Bohemia.” Henry’s mother, who came from Bohemia, knew how to make a delicious tomato sauce and this was the recipe, which became a formula of the most popular ketchup brand of nowadays.

Tomato sauce made from fresh tomatoes grown by Heinz in the fields of Pennsylvania (so everyone could personally make sure that only the choicest tomatoes are used) was a great success. The ketchup more than delighted consumers, as it could improve the taste of a wide variety of products – from sausages to pasta.

It is interesting to know that in 1896, while riding a train in New York City, Henry J. Heinz saw an advertising sign that promoted 21 styles of shoes, which he thought was very clever. Although Heinz was manufacturing more than 60 products at the time, Henry thought 57 was his lucky number. Therefore, he began using the slogan “57 Varieties” in his all advertising campaigns. Today the company has more than 5,700 products around the world, but still uses the magic number of “57.”

Henry continued to expand the range of preserves, sauces, and marinades. Ketchup was followed by such products as sauces made of red and green peppers, chili, apple cider and dips, olives, pickled onions and cauliflower, baked beans and pickles.

Henry started to regain confidence after the bankruptcy he suffered. At the time of economic crisis, when Heinz owed a considerable amount of money to the Pittsburgh farmers and grocers, he promised that he would return them all to the last cent; although bankrupts didn’t have to do so. When his revenue increased significantly, honest and conscientious Henry gradually started to pay back his debts, and it took him five years to clear them all. Only after this, Henry Heinz became a legal owner of the company, moving its headquarters to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.

Quality of production and motivation of employees

Henry tried to make the quality of his products as high as it was possible. To do so, he was organizing various systems controlling the quality, introduced new technologies, and continuously experimented with packaging. Henry J. Heinz believed that the way the bottle appearance was the most important in the product’s image. He noticed that the consumers were not trusting canned food in opaque jars. Henry decided that the customer should see what the product contains inside and started to use glass bottles for his ketchup. This package had its pros and cons. Of course, it demonstrated a beautiful red color of the sauce to the buyers and enhanced the credibility of the manufacturer. However, on the other hand, ketchup often darkened over time, giving the product an imperfect look. Resourceful Heinz figured out how to eliminate this drawback – he began to glue labels around the bottleneck.

Over time, the company expanded its size and increased a headcount, which created a new problem. In the summer of 1892, the employees of Carnegie Steel Company located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, went on strike against mass dismissals from work. Ten people were killed during a fight with the security of the factory, and several dozens were injured. To end this conflict, the governor of Pennsylvania introduced military troops to the city.

Henry J. Heinz was shocked by this case, so he immediately started to improve working conditions on his factories. The workers of Heinz had a few breaks during a day; they also could take a bath after a working shift. All the women were given fresh aprons and bonnets, the ones who peeled the cucumbers were given a free manicure once a week. Besides, every factory worker had a free medical service guaranteed.

Heinz’s factory had a family atmosphere. It had its own groups of interest, and even a choir, so the work in this team was very prestigious, although Henry established stringent hygiene requirements. No other company producing food could compete with Heinz in sanitation. This applied not only to the factory but also to the cultivation of vegetables and fruit in the fields. Mainly, Henry John Heinz was the first businessman to master the production of organic foods. Moreover, Heinz never used chemical preservatives in his products. Also, he never considered other manufacturers to be his competitors in terms of quality; his main rivals have always been ordinary housewives.

Advertising the Heinz products

Henry J. Heinz steadily moved around the country, promoting the company’s products in the trains. He sincerely believed that the consumer has to try the product to buy it. Each Heinz store was supplied with “probes” – samples of products. Moreover, he even invented a special cardboard spoon that could immediately be thrown away after trying a product. Henry could make several trips from Pittsburgh to New York in a day, calling the traveling “a school of life.” He always made notes on his observations along the way.

In 1983, Heinz took part in The World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. He was given a booth on the third floor of the exhibition hall. The place was not the most convenient one – the visitors had no particular desire to climb to the third floor. To entice them, Henry came up with the following: he printed golden foil labels, the sign on which stated that this label could be exchanged for a free prize in a booth on the third floor, and spread them all over the place so that they caught the eye of the visitors. People fell for the trick – having a desire of getting a present, they walked up to the stairs. There, the very first thing they saw was a huge amount of cans and bottles of Heinz products put on a display in the form of a pyramid. Thanks to the ingenuity of Henry, his products have become the highlight of the program.

Neon advertising appeared in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. Henry J. Heinz was the first among the companies acquiring neon advertising nationwide.

Tomato empire

Business methods used by Heinz were giving excellent results, and of course, his rivals started to use them as well. Henry had to take some extreme measures. For example, Heinz was buying all the empty jars made of glass in the town, using the major part of them for his production. The rest was loaded on a barge and drowned in the river, so no one was able to use them.

The H. J. Heinz Company became a pure family business – many of Henry’s relatives worked in the company. He gradually taught his sons, and then they all took started working in his company (initially they began in sales, and then they moved to management). Even though Heinz treated his subordinates very politely, he could easily take all the necessary measures, if he saw that someone did not perform well. Once he even had to fire his brother John, when the results of its operations significantly deteriorated (he was constantly late and worked very slowly). For the sake of the company and its future prosperity, he had to make difficult decisions of this type. Any of his relatives was obliged to perform well as any of the other workers of the company and the fact that he was a member of the Heinz family was never taken into account.

In the winter of 1886, Henry J. Heinz agreed to go to Europe as his family asked him to. Arriving in London, Heinz immediately went to the procurement manager of Fortnum & Mason department store, who was the supplier of The British Royal Household and demonstrated the samples of his products. “I believe, Mr. Heinz, we’ll buy all of this,” the manager said. Thus, England became the first foreign market selling Heinz brand. After ten years, sales have grown to the level, which forced Heinz to open an office in London not far from the Tower of London. Following this, he built a factory and bought a large plot of land over there as well, which caused many Englishmen to believe that Heinz was a British company.

From that moment, Heinz products came into international trade, which was significant as those days American products were not widespread in Europe. The H. J. Heinz Company history and Henry John Heinz biography will long be studied as a great example of a successful business.

Sarah Heinz house

In 1898, Henry left the United States to visit his ancestors in Germany. He went on a trip with his wife Sarah Sloan Young Heinz, who had hoped to see a doctor in Europe in order to get rid of the chest pains. Since then, Heinz began to visit his ethnic homeland every year. The job of Henry J. Heinz obliged him to travel around the world regularly, but he always spent his holidays in Germany.

Soon, the Heinz family returned to the United States. Sarah’s condition did not improve after the journey – her chest pain only intensified. Henry’s wife started to fade gradually, and soon, at the age of 51, she passed away. After the death of his wife, Henry built a Sarah Heinz House in her memory. Today it is a youth center (it hosts a wide variety of entertainment and sports events). Henry never married again.

The First World War and lucky escape from Germany

Each year Henry J. Heinz used to spend a vacation at the fashionable resort “Bad Kissingen” in his native Germany. However, once, arriving there in the summer of 1914, Heinz did not have a chance to relax. Suddenly he was forbidden to leave his hotel room, as he was a citizen of the U.S. Later it turned out that thousands of German soldiers were mobilized in Bad Kissingen area those days. The First World War has just started. Henry barely escaped from Germany through Holland and never had a chance to go back. He even spoke up in favor of the Americans to take part in the war against the German Reich.

World War I caused many changes in the German communities of America. German newspapers went out of print in 1917, and German classes were reduced in schools and even it was even forbidden to speak German. For many immigrants, who did not know English, this was an actual disaster. In 1920, the situation was slightly improved; however, it was never restored. Heinz family stopped speaking German and cut all the connections with Germany.

At the age of 75, Henry did not even think to stop working. He still visited the factory regularly, watching the progress of his business. His grandchildren became his true happiness – he had eleven of them. They all loved to travel the world with Grandpa Henry. Journeys have always been his passion. He even opened a Heinz Pier in Atlantic City, New Jersey (being at a young age), to demonstrate Heinz food products and where he kept all the treasures of art and souvenirs brought from his trips. Henry John Heinz loved watches and canes in some unique way – there was a considerable amount of them stored in the exhibition hall. Additionally, the Heinz Pier provided demonstration kitchens with free cold and hot food samples. The pier, incidentally, was destroyed by a massive hurricane in 1944.

Henry J. Heinz suffered and died from pneumonia at the age of 74. His employees raised money and put up a monument, which can still be found in the main building of the company. Before dying, Henry asked to build a church in honor of his mother. Today, this church is located on the campus of Pittsburgh.

The heritage of Henry J. Heinz

After the death of Henry J. Heinz, his son Howard Heinz took over the management of the business. In his work, he continued to follow the main principle of the father: the company must implement an entire production cycle from its start to its finish. This allowed the company of Heinz to not only survive the Great Depression but also even to master the production of baby food and instant soups, which were in high demand during that rough time. Sales and imperial power of The H. J. Heinz Company grew day by day. Howard Heinz showed himself as a very competent manager, which could anticipate the desires of the market.

In 1941, H. J. “Jack” Heinz II, who was a grandson of its founder, headed the company. He earned a tremendous amount of money by supplying the army with Heinz products, but at the same time, he managed a broad expansion of their family business by building factories worldwide, including Portugal, Mexico, the Netherlands, Italy, and other countries.

Unfortunately, most of the new plants used purchased crops, so H. J. Heinz Company could not exclude, for instance, that they do not use herbicide in the cultivation of their vegetables or fruit anymore. This immediately became an advantage of the competitors.

Importantly, Henry John Heinz was the last representative of the family who headed the company. A hired manager became a CEO of Heinz, even though, of course, the Heinz family still had some influence since it was the largest shareholder. In February 2013, the company was bought for $ 28 billion by Berkshire Hathaway (belongs to Warren Buffett), together with its partner – 3G Capital (belongs to Brazilian billionaire Jorge Paulo Lemann). This deal became the largest one in the history of food brands.

Today, about 32,000 of employees (2012) work at Heinz factories worldwide. A company’s revenue was about $11.64 billion in 2012. Heinz ketchup is present in almost every second refrigerator on the planet. The current CEO of H. J. Heinz Company is Bernardo Vieira Hees, and he was assigned to this position on June 10, 2013.

Henry John Heinz once said, “As I did not become a priest, I have to find another way to do some good to mankind.” Today we can say that he surely achieved this goal in his life.

 

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